HLGTW Citations

Front Matter Citations

[1] Hourglass image from https://web.archive.org/web/20200927175244/https://www.uokpl.rs/rsmax/hTxxJhR/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/20/20). Eyeglasses image by talekids, public domain, https://openclipart.org/detail/248034/mans-disguise-glasses . Book image from https://cutewallpaper.org/download.php?file=/24/pictures-of-open-books/13738289.jpg, believed to be in the public domain. 

Chapter 10 Citations

[2] Hourglass image from https://web.archive.org/web/20200927175244/https://www.uokpl.rs/rsmax/hTxxJhR/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/20/20). “Mariana Trench” image by rones (3/11/2015), public domain, https://openclipart.org/detail/215779/mariana-trench (accessed, saved, and archived 9/26/20). Snorkel image by OpenMoji, CC BY 4.0 license, https://creazilla.com/nodes/42699-diving-mask-emoji-clipart  (accessed, saved, and archived 11/21/20). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[3] Big Bang, galaxy, sun, and Earth icons all reproduced by Pixabay license. Big bang by OpenClipart-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/bang-explosion-noise-onomatopoeia-148261/ . Galaxy icon by OpenClipart-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/galaxy-magical-adventure-spiral-1294347/ . Sun icon by CycledeKrebs, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/sun-day-rays-sun-s-rays-1075154/. Earth icon by eirabirkhammar, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/earth-icon-globe-world-4960147/ . Bacteria icon = Twitter’s open source “microbe” emoji, Unicode U+1F9A0, CC BY 4.0 license, https://creazilla.com/nodes/55938-microbe-emoji-clipart. All icons on this timeline accessed, saved, and archived 9/12/20. Timeline / composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[4] Adam G. Riess et al., “Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheid Standards Provide a 1% Foundation for the Determination of the Hubble Constant and Stronger Evidence for Physics Beyond LambdaCDM,” Astrophysical Journal arXiv:1903.07603v2 [astro-ph.CO] (3/27/2019) , https://arxiv.org/abs/1903.07603v2, accessed and saved 6/02/19.

[5] Allan R. Sandage, “Current Problems in the Extragalactic Distance Scale”, Astrophysical Journal, vol. 127, p. 513 (May, 1958), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1958ApJ…127..513S (accessed and saved 6/02/19).

[6] The interaction of space-time with matter-energy, and the expansion of space-time, are described in Einstein’s general theory of relativity.  First complete publication (German): “Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie”, Annalen der Physik 49(7):769-822 (March, 1916), http://myweb.rz.uni-augsburg.de/~eckern/adp/history/einstein-papers/1916_49_769-822.pdf (accessed and saved 6/3/19).  First English translation:  “The Foundation of the Generalised Theory of Relativity” in S.N. Bose and M.N. Saha, The Principle of Relativity; original papers by A. Einstein and H. Minkowski, University of Calcutta (1920), Part 2, pp. 89 – 163, https://archive.org/details/theprincipleofre00einsuoft/page/89 (accessed and saved 6/3/19).  Einstein’s own general-audience account of relativity was Relativity: The Special and General Theory, trans. Robert Lawson, Holt (New York, 1920), https://www.ibiblio.org/ebooks/Einstein/Einstein_Relativity.pdf .

[7] Space-time diagram from Edwin F. Taylor and John Archibald Wheeler, Spacetime Physics, W. H. Freeman (1966, 2ed. 1992) p. 37, https://archive.org/details/spacetime_physics/page/n45/mode/2up (accessed 2/23/20). Used with permission of Prof. Taylor (email of 5/08/15).

[8] Standard model table: Image by Wikimedia Commons user “Cush”, released into the public domain, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Standard_Model_of_Elementary_Particles_Anti.svg#file (accessed, saved, and archived 10/23/20).

[9] Julija Bagdonaite et al., “A Stringent Limit on a Drifting Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio from Alcohol in the Early Universe”, Science 339(6115):46-48 (1/04/2013), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6115/46 (accessed and saved 6/03/19).

[10] Helge Kragh, “Preludes to dark energy:  zero-point energy and vacuum speculations”, Archive for History of Exact Sciences 66(3):199-240 (May, 2012), https://www.jstor.org/stable/41472231 (accessed and saved 6/09/19).

[11] S.K. Lamoreaux, “Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6 µm Range”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(1):5-8 (1/06/1997), https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.5 (accessed and saved 6/09/19).

[12] Alan H. Guth, “Inflationary universe:  A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems”, Phys. Rev. D 23(2):347-356 (1/15/1981), https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.23.347 (accessed and saved 3/09/20).

[13] Alan H. Guth, The Inflationary Universe, Addison Wesley (First Printing, March, 1997) Appendix A.

[14] Edward P. Tryon, “Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?” Nature 246, 396-397 (12/14/1973), https://www.nature.com/articles/246396a0 (accessed and saved 6/09/19).

[15] Electromagnetic spectrum image by The Imagine Team, NASA (11/14/2014), https://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/toolbox/emspectrum1.html (accessed, saved, and archived 3/01/20). In the public domain as the creative work of a US government agency.

[16] Ralph Alpher, “A Neutron-Capture Theory of the Formation and Relative Abundance of the Elements”, Physical Review 74, 1577 (12/01/1948), https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.74.1577 (abstract accessed 6/23/19).

[17] Seth Borenstein and Jennifer Agiesta, “Poll:  Religion Trumps Belief in Big Bang Theory for Most Americans”, Associated Press (4/21/2014), https://www.nbcnews.com/science/science-news/poll-religion-trumps-belief-big-bang-theory-most-americans-n85806 (accessed and saved 6/16/19).

[18] Expansion of the Universe:  Predictions derived from Einstein (1916), op cit., observed by Edwin Hubble, “A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae”, PNAS 15(3):168-173 (3/15/1929), https://www.pnas.org/content/15/3/168 (accessed and saved 6/16/19).

[19] Cosmic background radiation:  Predicted by Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman, “Evolution of the Universe”, Nature 162, 774-775 (11/13/1948), https://www.nature.com/articles/162774b0 (accessed 6/16/19). Observed by A.A. Penzias and R.W. Wilson, “A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 2080 Mc/s”, Astrophysical Journal vol. 142, pp. 419-421 (July, 1965), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965ApJ…142..419P (accessed 6/16/19).

[20] Nuclear ratios:  This was a more drawn-out process, but predictions were refined in the latter half of the 20th century, and the observations became accurate enough to confirm theory only in the early 21st century. Good overview by Ethan Siegel, “Big Bang Confirmed Again, This Time By The Universe’s First Atoms”, Forbes (7/11/2017), https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2017/07/11/big-bang-confirmed-again-this-time-by-the-universes-first-atoms/#5850116879c2 (accessed and saved 6/16/19).

[21] Fernando Porcelli and Giancarlo Scibona, “Large-Scale Structure Formation via Quantum Fluctuations and Gravitational Instability”, Int’l Journal Geosciences 5:634-656 (May, 2014), https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=46224 (accessed and saved 6/16/19).

[22] Judd D. Bowman et al., “An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum”, Nature 555:67-70 (3/01/2018), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25792 (accessed and saved 6/17/19).

[23] Howard E. Bond et al., “HD 140283: A star in the solar neighborhood that formed shortly after the big bang”, The Astrophysical Journal Letters 765:L12, 1-5 (2/13/2013), https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/765/1/L12 (accessed and saved 6/17/19).

[24] A.M. Ghez et al., “Measuring Distance and Properties of the Milky Way’s Central Supermassive Black Hole with Stellar Orbits”, The Astrophysical Journal 689(2):1044-1062 (8/21/2008), https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1086/592738 (accessed and saved 6/17/19).

[25] Sukanya Chakrabarti et al., “Antlia2’s role in driving the ripples in the outer gas disk of the galaxy”, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, draft version accepted for publication (6/12/2019), https://arxiv.org/abs/1906.04203 (accessed and saved 6/22/19).

[26] Roeland P. van der Marel et al., “First Gaia Dynamics of the Andromeda System: DR2 Proper Motions, Orbits, and Rotation of M31 and M33”, The Astrophysical Journal vol. 872, no. 1, Article 24 (2/10/2019), https://iopscience.iop.org/issue/0004-637X/872/1 (accessed and saved 6/22/19).

[27] N. F. Martin et al., “A dwarf galaxy remnant in Canis Major: the fossil of an in-plane accretion on to the Milky Way”, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 348, Issue 1 (2/11/2004), https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/348/1/12/1411293 (accessed and saved 6/23/19).

[28] Adam G. Riess et al., “Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant”, Astronomical Journal 116:1009-1038 (5/15/1998), https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 (accessed and saved 7/29/19).

[29] Image:  http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/37/Evolved_star_fusion_shells.svg/500px-Evolved_star_fusion_shells.svg.png

[30] See e.g. Jim Stephens, “# 31 The Second Law of Thermodynamics”, 101 Proofs for God (4/09/2013), http://101proofsforgod.blogspot.com/2013/04/31-second-law-of-thermodynamics.html (accessed and saved 6/30/19).

[31] Umberto Maio et al., “The transition from population III to population II-I star formation”, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 407, 1003-1015 at 1003 (5/10/2010), https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/407/2/1003/1119897 (accessed and saved 6/30/19).

[32] Alan P. Boss and Sandra A. Keiser, “Who pulled the trigger:  a supernova or an asymptotic giant branch star?” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 717:L1-L5 (7/01/2010), https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/717/1/L1/meta (accessed and saved 6/30/19).

[33] Reginald A. Daly, “Origin of the Moon and Its Topography”, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 90(2):104-119 (May, 1946), https://courses.seas.harvard.edu/climate/eli/Courses/EPS281r/Sources/Origin-of-the-Moon/2-Daly-1946.pdf (accessed and saved 7/28/19).

[34] Douwe G. Van Der Meer et al., “Plate tectonic controls on atmospheric CO2 levels since the Triassic”, PNAS 111(12):4380-4385 (3/25/2014), https://www.pnas.org/content/111/12/4380 (accessed and saved 7/28/19).

[35] William W. Rubey, “Development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, with special reference to probable composition of the early atmosphere”, In: Arie Poldervaart (ed.), Crust of the Earth: A Symposium, Geol Soc Am, Special Paper 62, 631-664 (1/01/1955), https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/books/book/711/chapter/3809004/development-of-the-hydrosphere-and-atmosphere-with (introduction accessed and saved 7/28/19).

[36] Abel Méndez et al., “Habitable Exoplanets Catalog”, Planetary Habitability Laboratory (6/18/2019), http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog/ (accessed and saved 6/30/19).

[37] Adam Sarafian et al., “Early accretion of water and volatile elements to the inner Solar System:  Evidence from angrites”, Science 346(6209):623-626 (10/31/2014), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6209/623 (accessed and saved 7/28/19).

[38] Simon A. Wilde et al., “Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago”, Nature 409, 175-178 (1/11/2001), https://www.nature.com/articles/35051550 (accessed and saved 7/28/19).

[39] Martin van Kranendonk as quoted by Seth Borenstein, “Scientists find 3.7 billion-year-old fossil, oldest yet”, Phys.org (8/31/2016), https://phys.org/news/2016-08-scientists-billion-year-old-fossil-oldest.html (accessed and saved 7/28/19).

[40] Image by NEUROtiker (public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAlpha-D-Glucopyranose.svg .

[41] Image by Benjah-bmm27 (public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAlpha-amino-acid-2D-flat.png .

[42] The nucleotide image is described as in the public domain at https://hubpages.com/health/Nucleotide-Supplements-is-There-any-Evidence-to-Support-Their-Use# (accessed 7/31/19).

[43] DNA structure image by Thomas Shafee [CC BY 4.0] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_chemical_structure_2.svg (accessed and saved 7/27/19).

[44] Lipid bilayer image by Masur (public domain), via Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABilayer_scheme.svg (accessed and saved 8/01/19).

[45] Max Bernstein, “Prebiotic materials from on and off the early Earth”, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 361(1474):1689-1702 (10/29/2006), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1664678/ (accessed and saved 7/07/19).

[46] This field of chemistry dates to the classic Miller-Urey experiment. Stanley Miller, “A Production of Amino Acids under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions”, Science 117:3046, 528-529 (5/15/1953), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/117/3046/528 (accessed and saved 7/07/19).

[47] Lipid bilayer cell membrane image by Philcha (Public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ALiposome_cross_section.png

[48] Alex Rich, “On the Problems of Evolution and Biochemical Information Transfer”, Horizons in Biochemistry, Michael Kasha and Bernard Pullman, eds., Academic Press (1962), 103-126, https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.141670/2015.141670.Horizons-In-Biochemistry_djvu.txt (OCR copy with several errors, accessed and saved 7/07/19).

[49] Kelly Kruger et al., “Self-splicing RNA:  Autoexcision and autocyclization of the ribosomal RNA intervening sequence of tetrahymena”, Cell 31(1):147-157 (11/01/1982), https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(82)90414-7 (accessed 7/07/19).

[50] Diagram by Philippe Hupé (CC BY-SA 3.0), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Central_dogma_of_molecular_biology.svg (accessed and saved 7/08/19), revised by Scot Fagerland.

[51] See e.g. Anatoly D. Altstein, “The progene hypothesis:  the nucleoprotein world and how life began”, Biology Direct 10:67 (11/26/2015), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26612610 (accessed and saved 7/10/19).

[52] David Segré et al., “The lipid world”, Orig Life Evol Biosph 31(1-2):119-45 (Feb – Apr 2001), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11296516 (accessed and saved 7/27/19).

[53] Alexander G. Cairns-Smith, “The clay-making machine”, Seven Clues to the Origin of Life, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 80 – 86, https://www.krusch.com/books/evolution/Seven_Clues_Origin_Life.pdf  (accessed and saved 7/27/19).

[54] M.S. Dodd et al., “Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates”, Nature 543(7643):60-64, http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/112179/

[55] Robert Belshaw et al., “Long-term reinfection of the human genome by endogenous retroviruses”, PNAS 101(14):4894-9 (4/06/2004), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC387345/ (accessed and saved 7/14/19).

[56] Carl Woese, “The Universal Ancestor,” PNAS 95(12):6854-9 (6/09/1998), http://www.pnas.org/content/95/12/6854.long, accessed and saved 7/14/19.

[57] Nick Lane, John F. Allen, and William Martin, “How did LUCA make a living?  Chemiosmosis in the beginning of life,” BioEssays 32:271-280 (2010), http://www.molevol.de/publications/188.pdf, accessed and saved 7/14/19.

[58] William Whitman et al, “Prokaryotes:  The unseen majority,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 6578–6583, June 1998, https://www.pnas.org/content/95/12/6578 , accessed and saved 7/14/19.

[59] Herbert Spencer, Principles of Biology, 1864, Vol. 1, p. 444.

[60] Stanley Awramik, “The oldest records of photosynthesis,” Photosynthesis Research 33: 75 – 89, 1992,  http://www.geol.ucsb.edu/faculty/awramik/pubs/AWRA9275.pdf, accessed 9/03/13

[61] Armen Y. Mulkidjanian et al, “Co-evolution of primordial membranes and membrane proteins,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 34(4): 206 – 215 (3/18/2009), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2752816/ , accessed and saved 7/14/19.

[62] Advanced cell membrane image by Mariana Ruiz Villarreal, aka LadyOfHats, released into the public domain via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cell_membrane_detailed_diagram_en.svg (accessed and saved 5/23/15).

[63] Gerhart & Kirschner, Cells, Embryos, and Evolution , Blackwell Science (1997), p. 8.

[64] J.E. Hobbie, R.J. Daley, and S. Jasper, “Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy”, Appl Environ Microbiol. 33(5):1225-1228 (May, 1977), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC170856 (accessed and saved 7/14/19).

[65] Pamela Christine Lyon, “The cognitive cell:  Bacterial behavior reconsidered”, Frontiers in Microbiology 6(264):1-18 (4/14/2015), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25926819 (accessed and saved 7/14/19).

[66] http://rna.ucsc.edu/rnacenter/noller_lab.html . This incredible imagery was accomplished in Harry Noller’s lab at UCSC. Prof. Noller was kind enough to grant me permission for use, along with this description:  “It is a representation of a functional complex of the 70S ribosome from Thermus thermophilus” (appropriately enough, one of the most primitive life-forms) “that we published in 2001 (Yusupov et al., Science) containing an mRNA and three tRNAs.  The 16S rRNA is cyan, 23S rRNA gray, 5S rRNA gray-blue, small subunit proteins dark blue, large subunit proteins magenta, tRNAs orange and red, and mRNA (barely visible center left) green.” (Visit the website to see the colors).

[67] Prokaryote image by Mariana Ruiz Villarreal aka LadyOfHats, placed into the public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg (accessed and saved 8/01/19).

Chapter 9 Citations

[68] Hourglass image same as Chapter 10 (notes 1 and 2).  Mountain image public domain, https://creazilla.com/nodes/63914-mountain-clipart.  Cloud image by Fathromi Ramdlon, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/cloud-white-no-background-paint-2837231/ (both accessed, saved, and archived 11/14/2020).  Scarf image by Noto Color Emoji, Apache 2.0 License, https://creazilla.com/nodes/58387-scarf-emoji-clipart (accessed, saved, and archived 11/21/20). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.  

[69] Mountain icon by Memed Nurrohmad, Pixabay license, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/mountain-icon-sign-design-symbol-1849091/.  Egg / sperm icon “reproduction” by Edwin PM, https://thenounproject.com/term/reproduction/1332876/ .  “Yellow sponge with green algae” by Luayana, https://www.dreamstime.com/yellow-sponge-green-algae-white-background-yellow-sponge-green-algae-image120195101 .  Fish icon by kreatikar, Pixabay license, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/clipart-fish-sea-water-swim-3418189/.  All accessed, saved, and archived 9/12/20. Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.      

[70] Nora Noffke et al., “Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia”, Astrobiology 13(12):1103-24 (12/01/2013), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3870916/ (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[71] Preston Cloud, “Paleoecological Significance of the Banded Iron-Formation”, Economic Geology 68(7):1135-43 (11/01/1973), https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/segweb/economicgeology/article-abstract/68/7/1135/18462/paleoecological-significance-of-the-banded-iron (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[72] Anja Spang et al., “Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes”, Nature 521, 173-179 (5/14/2015), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14447 (accessed 8/3/19).

[73] The endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotes was first seriously propounded by Lynn Margulis, Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, Yale University Press (1970). 

[74] Jeremy N. Timmis et al, “Endosymbiotic gene transfer: organelle genomes forge eukaryotic chromosomes,” Nature Reviews / Genetics, Vol. 5, p. 123 (Feb. 2004) http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/endosymbiotic-gene-transfer-organelle-genomes-forge-eukaryotic-13997492  , accessed and saved 8/04/19.  This is a very informative and well-organized paper.  It is illustrated, and its bibliography highlights the historical significance of key papers in the field.

[75] Gregory J. Retallack et al., “Problematic urn-shaped fossils from a Paleoproterozoic (2.2 Ga) paleosol in South Africa”, Precambrian Research 235, 71-87 (Sep., 2013), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926813001812?via%3Dihub (abstract accessed and saved 8/3/19).

[76] Diatom image:  By Wipeter (Own work), GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or FAL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADiatom2.jpg (accessed 6/24/15)

[77] I made the mitosis / meiosis illustrations in 2015.

[78] Michael Bulmer and Geoff A. Parker, “The evolution of anisogamy: a game-theoretic approach,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B: 269:2381-2388 (11/22/2002), http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1507/2381 (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[79] Harris Bernstein et al., “Genetic damage, mutation, and the evolution of sex”, Science 229 (4719): 1277–81 (Oct., 1985) https://science.sciencemag.org/content/229/4719/1277 (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[80] S.P. Otto and A.C. Gerstein, (August 2006). “Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination”, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34 (4): 519–22 (7/21/2006), http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/34/4/519  (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[81] You probably recognize this discussion of the finches as one of Darwin’s major breakthroughs.  By studying Galapagos finches, he provided compelling evidence that evolution and even speciation are caused by natural selection.  Darwin’s original writings on these finches were published in Narrative of the Surveying Voyages … (1839), Journal of Researches into the Natural History … (1845) and On the Origin of the Species (1859).  These books are all available in full at John van Wyhe (ed.), The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online (since 2002), http://darwin-online.org.uk (accessed 8/04/19). 

[82] Carnivora drawing:  “Miacis” by “Mr. Fink”, GFDL CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMiacis.jpg .  Felidae drawing: “Proailurus: Common cat ancestor”, public domain, http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/extinct/Proailurus__common_cat_ancestor.png.html .   Canidae drawing: “Life restoration of Hesperocyon (formerly Cynodictis)” by Robert Horsfall, illustration for book A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, W.B. Scott, MacMillan, 1912 (public domain).  Tiger photo: Karen Arnold, public domain, http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=33775 .   Lynx photo: Petr Kratochvil, public domain, http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=40903&picture=lynx .  Fox photo = “Fox red”, public domain, http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/F/fox/fox_2/fox_red.jpg.html .  Jackal photo = “Black backed jackal”, public domain, http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/J/jackal/Black-backed_Jackal.jpg.html .  Cat photo = “Vesta”, by Scot Fagerland, copyright 2015.  Jungle cat photo = “Jungle cat photo”, public domain, http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/wild_cats/jungle_cat/Jungle_cat_photo.jpg.html .  Dog photo = “Golden retriever dog”, Karen Arnold, public domain, http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=35696 .  Coyote photo = “Coyote howling”, public domain, http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/C/coyote/Coyote_howling.png.html

[83] Herbert Spencer, Principles of Biology, 1864.

[84] Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant, “The secondary contact phase of allopatric speciation in Darwin’s finches”, PNAS (11/16/2009), https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/11/12/0911761106 (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[85] M. Alan Kazlev and T. Mike Keesey, “Taxonomy: Cladistic and Linnaean Systems – Incompatible or Complementary?” Palaeos (1998 – 2002), http://palaeos.com/systematics/taxonomy/incompatible.html (accessed and saved 8/04/19).

[86] David G. King, “Connective Tissue Study Guide,” 2015, http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/intro/ct.htm#components (accessed and saved 8/10/19).

[87] John A. Long et al, “Copulation in antiarch placoderms and the origin of gnathostome internal fertilization,” Nature Vol. 517, 196-199 (10/19/2014), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13825 (accessed 8/11/19).  Or if you’re feeling brave, you can even view Flinders University’s computer-generated video of this prehistoric copulation at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmUSfHYpxxQ (posted 10/19/2014, accessed 8/11/19).

[88] Leonard B. Radinsky, The Evolution of Vertebrate Design, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1987) p. 56. 

[89] Norifumi Tatsumi et al., “Molecular developmental mechanism in polypterid fish provides insight into the origin of vertebrate lungs”, Scientific Reports 6, article no. 30580 (7/28/2016), https://www.nature.com/articles/srep30580 (accessed and saved 8/11/19).

[90] Thomas J. Algeo and Algeo, T.J., and Stephen E. Scheckler, “Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian:  links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B Series 353(1365): 113-130 (1/29/1998), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1692181/ (accessed and saved 8/11/19).

[91] Radinsky, op. cit. pp. 77 – 85.

[92] David J. Chalmers, “Facing up to the problem of consciousness”, Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19 (1995), http://consc.net/papers/facing.pdf (accessed and saved 8/11/19).

[93] Rosemarie Velik, “From Simple Receptors to Complex Multimodal Percepts: A First Global Picture on the Mechanisms Involved in Perceptual Binding”, Front Psychol. 3: 259 (7/23/2012), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3402139/ (accessed and saved 8/11/19).

[94] Randolf Menzel and Martin Giurfa., “Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee”, Trd. Cog. Sci., 5(2):62-71 (2/01/2001), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11166636 (accessed and saved 8/11/19). 

[95 ] The school of thought that consciousness provides no evolutionary advantage is called Conscious Inessentialism and dates at least to Owen Flanagan, “Chapter 7:  Conscious Inessentialism and the Epiphenomenalist Suspicion”, Consciousness Reconsidered, MIT Press (1991), accessed and saved 8/17/19.

[96] Michael Graziano, “A New Theory Explains How Consciousness Evolved”, The Atlantic (6/06/2016), https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/06/how-consciousness-evolved/485558/ (accessed and saved 8/11/19).

[97] See e.g. Arik Diamant and Mucky Shpigel, “Interspecific feeding associations of groupers (Teleostei: Serranidae) with octopuses and moray eels in the Gulf of Eilat (Aqaba)”, Environmental Biology of Fishes 13(2):153-159 (Jun., 1985), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00002584 (accessed and saved 8/17/19).

[98] Kenneth S. Kendler and Ralph J. Greenspan, “The Nature of Genetic Influences on Behavior:  Lessons From ‘Simpler’ Organisms”, Am. J. Psychiatry 163(10):1683-1694 (Oct., 2006), https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.10.1683 (accessed and saved 8/17/19).

[99] “Algol”, “Interactive Continental Drift”, YouTube (12/26/2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UgRHZ5jDPUU (accessed and saved 8/17/19).

[100] Robert M. Hazen et al., “Mineral evolution”, American Mineralogist 93(11-12):1693-1720 (11/01/2008), https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/msa/ammin/article-abstract/93/11-12/1693/44643 (accessed 8/18/19).

[101] Tianchen He et al., “Possible links between extreme oxygen perturbations and the Cambrian radiation of animals”, Nature Geoscience 12, 468-474 (5/06/2019), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0357-z (abstract accessed 8/18/19).

[102] Shanan E. Peters and Robert R. Gaines, “Formation of the ‘Great Unconformity’ as a trigger for the Cambrian explosion”, Nature 484, 363-366 (4/19/2012), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10969 (abstract accessed 8/18/19).

[103] Dan-E. Nilsson, “Eye ancestry: Old genes for new eyes”, Current Biology 6(1): 39–42 (Jan. 1996),  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982202004177 (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[104] See e.g. Daniel Y.-C. Wang, Sudhir Kumar, and S. Blair Hedges, “Divergence Time Estimates for the Early History of Animal Phyla and the Origin of Plants, Animals and Fungi”, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 266(1415):163-171 (1/22/1999), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1689654/ (accessed 8/18/19).

[105] Fabio U. Battistuzzi, Andreia Feijao, and S. Blair Hedges, “A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land”, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 4:44 (11/09/2004) , http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533871/ (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[106] Claire P. Humphreys et al., “Mutualistic mycorrhiza-like symbiosis in the most ancient group of land plants”, Nature Communications 1, article 103 (11/02/2010),  http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v1/n8/full/ncomms1105.html (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[107] As far as I can trace it, Stephen Jay Gould was the first to use this phrase in his essay, “A humongous fungus among us”, Natural History 101(7):10-18 (July, 2002), http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/6498 (pp. 542-550 of PDF) (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[108] C. Kevin Boyce et al., “Devonian landscape heterogeneity recorded by a giant fungus”, Geology 35(5):399 – 402 (5/01/2007), http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/35/5/399.abstract (accessed and saved 8/18/19).   

[109] Paul Selden and Helen J. Read, “The oldest land animals: Silurian millipedes from Scotland”, Bulletin of the British Myriapod & Isopod Group 23: 36 – 37 (2008), http://www.bmig.org.uk/content/bmig-bulletin-volume-23-2008 (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[110] Bernhard Misof et al., “Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution”, Science 346(6210):763-767 (11/07/2014), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6210/763 (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[111] Paul Bunje, “The Gastropoda”, California Academy of Sciences (1999), https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/taxa/inverts/mollusca/gastropoda.php (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[112] William A. Shear, “The early development of terrestrial ecosystems”, Nature 351, 283-289 at 285 (5/23/1991), https://www.nature.com/articles/351283a0 (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[113] Dimitrios Floudas et al., “The Paleozoic Origin of Enzymatic Lignin Decomposition Reconstructed from 31 Fungal Genomes”, Science 336 (6089): 1715–1719 (6/29/2012), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/336/6089/1715.long (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[114] “How natural gas is formed”, Union of Concerned Scientists (4/03/2015), http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/coal-and-other-fossil-fuels/how-is-natural-gas-formed.html#.VXam2MLbLcs (accessed and saved 8/18/19).

[115] Mitochondria photo:  National Institutes of Health (public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrion_186.jpg (accessed and saved 8/21/19).

[116] Amoeba photo: By Cymothoa exigua (Own work) CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAmoeba_proteus.jpg (accessed and saved 6/24/15)

[117] Opisthokont photo: By Stephen Fairclough, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMonosiga_Brevicollis_Phase.jpg (accessed and saved 6/24/15)

[118] C.K. “Bob” Brain et al, “The first animals: ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia,” South African Journal of Science vol. 108 no. 1 / 2 (1/18/2012), http://archive.sajs.co.za/index.php/SAJS/article/view/658  (accessed and saved 8/10/19).

[119] Sponge photo by Twilight Zone Expedition Team 2007, NOAA-OE.  Public domain. NOAA Photo Library: reef3859 , https://www.flickr.com/photos/noaaphotolib/5015046804/ (accessed and saved 6/24/15). 

[120] Comb jellyfish photo by NOAA / OAR / National Undersea Research Program (NURP), public domain,  https://photolib.noaa.gov/Collections/Voyage/NURP/Sea-Life/Midwater-Invertebrates/emodule/1405/eitem/76665  (accessed and saved 8/21/19).

[121] Francisco José Ayala, Andrey Rzhetsky, and Francisco J. Ayala, “Origin of the metazoan phyla: Molecular clocks confirm paleontological estimates,” PNAS 95(2):606-611 (1/20/1998), http://www.pnas.org/content/95/2/606.long (accessed and saved 8/10/19).

[122] Sea cucumber image by NOAA, public domain,  http://flowergarden.noaa.gov/image_library/inverts/threerowedcucumberelh.jpg (accessed and saved 2015).

[123] Francisco José Ayala, Andrey Rzhetsky, and Francisco J. Ayala, “Molecular Clocks and the Origin of Animals”, in S.P. Wasser (ed)., Evolutionary Theory and Processes: Modern Perspectives, Kluwer Academic Publishers (1999) pp. 151-169, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-011-4830-6_10 (accessed and abstract saved 8/10/19).

[124] J.K. Sky Yu and Linda Z. Holland, “Cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelets): A model for understanding the evolution of chordate characters,” Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 2009, http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2009/9/pdb.emo130  (introduction accessed and saved 8/10/19).

[125] Lancelet image by Hans Hillewaert, via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ABranchiostoma_lanceolatum.jpg (accessed and saved 7/02/15) 

[126] Image of Myxinikela siroka by Nobu Tamura, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Myxinikela_NT_small.jpg (accessed and saved 8/21/19).

[127] Placoderm illustration by Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com) (Own work) GFDL or CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dunkleosteus_BW.jpg  (accessed 6/20/15)

[128] Pederpes image by user DiBgd (own work), DiBgd, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APederpes22small.jpg (accessed and saved 2015).

[129] Amniote (casineria) illustration by ДиБгд (Own work), CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACasineria_kiddi_reconstruction.jpg (accessed and saved 2015).

Chapter 8 Citations

[130] Hourglass image same as Chapter 10 (notes 1 and 2).  Volcano image by EmmanualCordoliani, CC BY 4.0 license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Volcano_Emoji.png (accessed, saved, and archived 11/21/20).  Gasmask image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/vectors/gas-mask-breather-breathing-black-297477/ (accessed, saved, and archived 11/21/20). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[131] Volcano icon by Pixabay user DoomSlayer, Public Domain (accessed and saved 8/02/20).  Meteor icon by Pixabay user monhtm, https://www.needpix.com/photo/download/640409 (accessed and saved 8/02/20).  Dinosaur icon public domain, http://www.clipartden.com/freeclipart/animal/dinosaur/dinosaur_10576.html (accessed and saved 11/22/20). Early amniote (“reptile”) image by User:ArthurWeasley, GFDL / CC BY-SA 3.0 license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeothyris_BW.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).  Early mammal image “Morganucodon” by FunkMonk (Michael B. H.), CC BY-SA 3.0 license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morganucodon.jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 11/22/20).  Early catarrhine (“monkey”) image by Nobu Tamura, CC BY-SA 3.0 license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aegyptopithecus_NT.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19). Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.    

[132] Victor N. Puchkov, “The evolution of the Uralian orogen”, Geological Society, London, Special Publications 327, 161-195 (12/21/2009), https://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/327/1/161 (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[133] Maps by Jacquelyne Kious et al., USGS (1996), public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pangaea_to_present.gif (accessed and saved 2016). 

[134] Pamela Lamplugh Robinson, “Palaeoclimatology and Continental Drift”, in D.H. Tarling and S.K. Runcorn, eds., Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences, I: Academic Press (London, 1973) pp. 451-476, https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.120209/page/n431 (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[135] Dana L. Royer et al, “CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate”, GSA Today vol. 14 no. 3 (March 2004), pp. 4-10, http://www.geosociety.org/gsatoday/archive/14/3/pdf/i1052-5173-14-3-4.pdf (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[136] Jurriaan M. De Vos et al., “Estimating the normal background rate of species extinction”, Conservation Biology 29(2):452-462 (April, 2015), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25159086 (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[137] The Siberian Traps were formed during the P-T transition, and geologists have long suspected a connection.  Evidence that the eruptions caused the extinction continues to grow.  See e.g. S. D. Burgess, J. D. Muirhead, and S. A. Bowring, “Initial pulse of Siberian Traps sills as the trigger of the end-Permian mass extinction”, Nature Communications 8, article no. 164 (7/31/2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00083-9 (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[138] David P. G. Bond and P. B. Wignall, “Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions: An update,” in Gerta Keller  and Andrew C. Kerr, eds., Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects, Geological Society of America Special Paper 505, pp. 29–55 (9/01/2014), https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/books/book/674/chapter/3807763/large-igneous-provinces-and-mass-extinctions-an (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[139] John Mason, “The cause of the greatest mass-extinctions of all? Pollution”, Skeptical Science, 3/19/15, https://www.skepticalscience.com/print.php?n=2884 (accessed and saved 8/25/19).

[140] Robert L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, W. H. Freeman (San Francisco, 1988), p. 589.  Archived at https://archive.org/details/vertebratepaleon0000carr/page/589 (accessed and saved 8/31/19).

[141] Qinglai Feng and Thomas J. Algeo, “Evolution of oceanic redox conditions during the Permo-Triassic: Evidence from radiolarian deepwater facies,” Earth Science Reviews (2014), https://www.academia.edu/9839104 (accessed and saved 8/31/19).

[142] Yadong Sun et al., “Lethally hot temperatures during the early Triassic greenhouse”, Science 338(6105):366-370 (10/19/2012), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/338/6105/366 (accessed and saved 8/31/19). 

[143] Sterling J. Nesbitt et al, “The oldest dinosaur? A Middle Triassic dinosauriform from Tanzania”, Biology Letters 9(1) (2/23/2013), http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/9/1/20120949 (accessed and saved 8/31/19).

[144] Pei-ji Chen, Zhi-ming Dong and Shuo-nan Zhen, “An exceptionally well-preserved theropod dinosaur from the Yixian Formation of China”, Nature 391: 147-152 (1/08/1998), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v391/n6663/full/391147a0.html (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[145] Bhart-Anjan Bhullar et al., “Birds have paedomorphic dinosaur skulls”, Nature 487(7406):223-6 (7/12/2012), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722850 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[146] Hu et al, “Large Mesozoic mammals fed on young dinosaurs”, Nature 433, 149-152 (1/13/2005), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7022/full/nature03102.html (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[147] “The Rise of Mammals”, PBS (2001), http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/1/l_031_01.html (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[148] Paul R. Renne et al., “Time Scales of Critical Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary”, Science 339 (6120): 684–687 (2/07/2013), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6120/684 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[149] See e.g. Mika McKinnon, “K-Pg Extinction Event: Theories”, GeoMika (12/21/13), http://www.geomika.com/blog/2013/12/21/k-pg-extinction-event-theories/ (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[150] Vaclav Smil, Oil: A Beginner’s Guide, Oneworld Publications (Kindle ebook edition, 2011), Location 1169. 

[151] Smil, ibid., location 1065.

[152] Smil, ibid., location 1101.

[153] Rasoul Sorkhabi, “Why so much oil in the Middle East?” GeoExPro vol. 7 no. 1 (2010), https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2010/07/why-so-much-oil-in-the-middle-east (accessed and saved 9/01/19). 

[154] Albert F. Bennett and John A. Ruben, “Endothermy and Activity in Vertebrates”, Science 206(4419):649-654 (11/09/1979), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/493968 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[155] Heffner and Heffner, “Hearing ranges of laboratory animals”, Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 46(1):20-22 (Jan., 2007), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17203911 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[156] Timothy B. Rowe, Thomas E. Macrini, and Zhe-Xi Luo, “Fossil evidence on Origin of the Mammalian Brain”, Science 332(6032):955-957 (5/20/2011), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/332/6032/955 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[157] Olav T. Oftedal, “The origin of lactation as a water source for parchment-shelled eggs”, Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 7(3):253-66 (July, 2002), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12751890# (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[158] James R. Stewart et al., “Uterine and eggshell structure and histochemistry in a lizard with prolonged uterine egg retention (Lacertilia, Scincidae, Saiphos)”, Journal of Morphology 271(11):1342-1351 (8/16/2010), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmor.10877 (abstract accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[159] Michael E. Steiper and Erik R. Seiffert, “Evidence for a convergent slowdown in primate molecular rates and its implications for the timing of early primate evolution”, PNAS 9(16):6006-11 (4/17/2012), http://www.pnas.org/content/109/16/6006.full (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[160] John Fleagle and Chris Gilbert, “Primate Evolution”, in Noel Rowe and Marc Myers, eds., All the World’s Primates (2017), http://alltheworldsprimates.org/john_fleagle_public.aspx (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[161] J.B. Chatterjee, “Vitamin C: Biosynthesis, Evolutionary Significance and Biological Function”, PINSA B64 nos. 3 & 4, pp. 213-234 (1998), https://www.insa.nic.in/writereaddata/UpLoadedFiles/PINSA/Vol64B_1998_3and4_Art03.pdf (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[162] These features were offered up as part of the definition of “primate” by St. George Jackson Mivart, Man and Apes (1873).

[163] Chris Beard, “Searching for our primate ancestors in China”, (Carnegie Museums, 1996), https://carnegiemuseums.org/magazine-archive/1996/marapr/beard.htm (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[164] Carlos G. Schrago and Claudia A.M. Russo, “Timing the Origin of New World Monkeys”, Mol Biol Evol 20(10):1620-1625 (Oct., 2003), http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/10/1620.full (accessed and saved 9/01/19)).

[165] This is a somewhat controversial hypothesis, dating at least to Grant Allen, The colour-sense: its origin and development, Houghton (Boston, 1879), https://archive.org/details/coloursenseitsor00alle/page/n8 (accessed 9/01/19).  Recent supporting evidence in favor of it includes Amanda D. Melin et al., “Trichromacy increases fruit intake rates of wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus imitator)”, PNAS 1705957114 (9/11/2017), https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/07/1705957114/tab-article-info (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[166] Robert Barton, “Visual specialization and brain evolution in primates”, Proc. R. Soc. B 265(1409):1933-1937 (10/22/1998), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1689478/ (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[167] Heinz Stephan, G. Baron, and H.D. Frahm, “Comparison of brain structure volumes in Insectivora and Primates. II. Accessory olfactory bulb (AOB),” Journal für Hirnforschung 23(5):575-91 (1982), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7161483# (abstract access and saved 9/01/19). 

[168] Philip Ulinski, “The Cerebral Cortex of Reptiles”, Ch. 5, Comparative Structure and Evolution of Cerebral Cortex, Part I, Springer Science + Business Media New York (1990), p. 139, http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9622-3_5 (accessed and saved 9/07/19).

[169] Timothy B. Rowe, Thomas E. Macrini, and Zhe-Xi Luo, “Fossil evidence on Origin of the Mammalian Brain”, Science 32(6032):955-7 (5/20/2011), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/332/6032/955 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[170] The earliest version of this statement I can find online is by Midas Dekkers in his 1994 book Dearest Pet: On Bestiality, Verso, 1994, p. 32. 

[171] Robin Dunbar, “Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates”, J Hum Evol 22(6):469-493 (Jun., 1992), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004724849290081J (accessed and saved 9/07/19).

[172] Suzana Herculano-Houzel, “The human brain in numbers: a linearly scaled-up primate brain”, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3(31):1-11 (11/09/2009), https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/neuro.09.031.2009/full (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[173] Gerhard Roth and Ursula Dicke, “Evolution of the brain and intelligence”, Trends in Cognitive Science 9(5):250-257, https://www.cell.com/trends/cognitive-sciences/fulltext/S1364-6613(05)00082-3 (accessed and saved 9/01/19).

[174] Hope Klug and Michael B. Bonsall, “When to care for, abandon, or eat your offspring: the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism,” The American Naturalist 170(6):886-901 (10/01/2007),  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18171171 (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[175] K.D. Broad, J.P. Curley, and E.B. Keverne, “Mother-infant bonding and the evolution of mammalian social relationships”, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 361(1476):2199–2214 (11/06/2006),  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1764844/ (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[176] Daniel Olazábal and Larry Young, “Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens facilitate ‘spontaneous’ maternal behavior in adult female prairie voles”, Neuroscience 141(2):559-68 (5/24/2006), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306452206005070 (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[177] E. van Leengoed, E. Kerker, and H.H. Swanson, “Inhibition of post-partum maternal behaviour in the rat by injecting an oxytocin antagonist into the cerebral ventricles”, J. Endocrinol. 112(2):275–282, https://joe.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/joe/112/2/joe_112_2_014.xml (accessed and saved 9/02/19). 

[178] Michael Tomasello and Josep Call, Primate Cognition, Oxford University Press (1997) Amazon Kindle eBook edition location 195.

[179] Ibid at location 209.

[180] Dennis O’Neil, “Social Structure”, Biological Anthropology Tutorials, Palomar College (online, 2012),   http://anthro.palomar.edu/behavior/behave_2.htm (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[181] At least indirectly while keeping a jealous lookout for competing males.  See Maribel Baldellou and S. Peter Henzi, “Vigilance, predator detection and the presence of supernumerary males in vervet monkey troops”, Animal Behaviour 43(3):451-461 (Mar., 1992), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347205801046 (abstract accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[182] Christopher Young et al., “Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in male macaques”, PNAS 111(51):18195-200 (12/08/14), http://www.pnas.org/content/111/51/18195.abstract (accessed 9/02/19).

[183] Megan Van Wolkenten et al., “Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort”, PNAS 104(47):18854-9 (11/20/2007), https://www.pnas.org/content/104/47/18854 (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[184] Marc D. Hauser, “Costs of deception: cheaters are punished in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)”, PNAS 89(24):12137-9 (12/15/1992), http://www.pnas.org/content/89/24/12137.short (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[185] Robert Trivers, “The evolution of reciprocal altruism”, Quarterly Review of Biology 46(1):35–57, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230818222_The_Evolution_of_Reciprocal_Altruism (accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[186] Robert M. Seyfarth and Dorothy L. Cheney, “Grooming, alliances and reciprocal altruism in vervet monkeys”, Nature 308, 541 – 543 (4/05/1984), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v308/n5959/pdf/308541a0.pdf (abstract accessed and saved 9/02/19).

[187] Boguslaw Pawlowski, C.B. Lowen, and R.I.M. Dunbar, “Neocortex size, social skills and mating success in primates”, Behaviour 135(3):357-368, https://brill.com/view/journals/beh/135/3/article-p357_8.xml (accessed and saved 9/03/19).

[188] See several examples cited by David Buss, “The Evolution of Happiness”, American Psychologist 55(1):15 – 23 (Jan., 2000), http://people.uncw.edu/bruce/psy%20292/pdfs/happiness.pdf (accessed and saved 9/03/19).

[189] Synapsid image by User:ArthurWeasley (Own work), CC-BY-SA-2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Archaeothyris_BW.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).

[190] T.S. Kemp, Mammal-like Reptiles and the Origin of Mammals, Academic Press (1982; 2nd printing, New York, 1984) p. 301.

[191] Cynodont image by Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com) (Own work), GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Procynosuchus_BW.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).

[192] Furry cynodont image by Smokeybjb (Own work), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brasilitherium_riograndensis.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).

[193] Basal mammal photograph by Nordelch (Megazostrodon Natural History Museum), CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Megazostrodon.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).  Protected by UK Freedom of Panorama law as a photograph of a sculpture in a public place.

[194] Eutheria image by Nobu Tamura http://paleoexhibit.blogspot.com/ http://spinops.blogspot.com/ http://www.palaeocritti.com (Own work), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Juramaia_NT.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).

[195] Maureen A. O’Leary et al., “The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals”, Science 339(6120):662-667 (2/08/2013), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393258 (accessed and saved 8/24/19). 

[196] Shrewdinger sculpture by the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.  Photograph by Christian Michelides, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shrewdinger.jpg .  Protected by UK Freedom of Panorama law as a photograph of a sculpture in a public place.

[197] Primate image by Mat Severson (Own work), CC BY-SA 4.0 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reconstruction_image_of_Archicebus.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).

[198] Catarrhine image by Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com) (Own work), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aegyptopithecus_NT.jpg (accessed and saved 8/24/19).

Chapter 7 Citations

[199] Waterfall image: Creazilla open-source license, https://creazilla.com/nodes/77331-waterfall-clipart (accessed 11/22/20).  Hourglass image same as Chapter 10 (notes 1 and 2).  Bikini image: OpenClipart-Vectors, Pixabay license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/bikini-swimming-suit-clothing-swim-145080/ (accessed 11/22/20).  Tree image: by diamonjohn, public domain, Tree with Green Leaves clipart. Free download transparent .PNG | Creazilla (accessed 11/22/20). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.    

[200] Ape silhouette: Karen Arnold, “Monkey Silhouette Clipart”, https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/en/view-image.php?image=74689&picture=monkey-silhouette-clipart.  Footprints:  “Foot prints silhouette”, https://publicdomainvectors.org/en/free-clipart/Foot-prints-silhouette/59240.html.  Smile:  nicubunu,  “Mouth with teeth”, http://www.publicdomainfiles.com/show_file.php?id=13936188013656.  Globe:  “America world globe vector clip art”, https://freesvg.org/america-world-globe-vector-clip-art.  All public domain.  All accessed, saved, and archived 8/29/20. Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.      

[201] Briana Pobiner, “Accepting, understanding, teaching, and learning (human) evolution:  Obstacles and opportunities”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 159(S61):232-274 (1/25/2016), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.22910#ajpa22910-bib-0293 (accessed, saved, and archived 10/19/19).

[202] Rasoul Sorkhabi, The Zagros Uplift, GeoExPro 9(1):18-25 (Feb., 2012), http://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2012/05/the-zagros-uplift  (accessed and archived 10/19/19).

[203] Discussed (but not discovered) by Marco Roveri et al., “The Messinian Salinity Crisis:  Past and future of a great challenge for marine sciences”, Marine Geology 352:25-58 (6/01/2014), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025322714000358?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 1/29/17).

[204] Christine D. Bacon et al., “Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama”, PNAS 112(19):6110-5 (4/27/2015), https://www.pnas.org/content/112/19/6110 (accessed and saved 1/29/2017).

[205] Aaron O’Dea et al., “Formation of the Isthmus of Panama”, Science Advances Vol. 2 no. 8 (8/17/2016), https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/8/e1600883 (accessed and saved 8/29/20).

[206] Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen et al., “Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia”, PNAS 109(20):7659-64 (5/15/2012), https://www.pnas.org/content/109/20/7659 (accessed and saved 1/29/2017).

[207] Timothy D. Herbert et al., “Late Miocene global cooling and the rise of modern ecosystems”, Nature Geoscience 9(11):843-847 (Sep., 2016), https://www.nature.com/articles/ngeo2813 (accessed and saved 10/19/19).

[208] R.C.L. Wilson, S.A. Drury, and J.L. Chapman, The Great Ice Age: Climate Change and Life, Routledge, 2000, summarized on p. 176.  For an explanation of how weathering can absorb CO2, see John Mason, “Understanding the long-term carbon-cycle: weathering of rocks – a vitally important carbon-sink”, Skeptical Science, 7/02/2013,  https://www.skepticalscience.com/weathering.html (accessed and saved 5/07/2017, archived 10/20/19). 

[209] Gregory Retallack, “Cenozoic Expansion of Grasslands and Climatic Cooling”, The Journal of Geology 109(4):407-426 no. 4 (July 2001), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/320791 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[210] Thom Holmes, The Age of Mammals: The Oligocene and Miocene Epochs (Chelsea House Publishers: New York City, 2009), Ch. 4.

[211] Holmes, ibid. atp. 26.

[212] Holmes, ibid. at p. 147.

[213] Donna Hart and Robert Sussman, Man the Hunted, Westview Press, 2005.

[214] David Polly and Brian Speer, “The Miocene Epoch”, University of California Museum of Paleontology, 1994 – 1997,  http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/miocene.php (accessed and saved 2/19/2017, archived 10/20/19).

[215] Mark S. Springer et al., “Macroevolutionary Dynamics and Historical Biogeography of Primate Diversification Inferred from a Species Supermatrix”. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49521 (11/16/2012), http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0049521 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[216] Virginia Avis, “Brachiation: The Crucial Issue for Man’s Ancestry”, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 18(2):119-148 (Summer, 1962), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/soutjanth.18.2.3629013  (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[217] L. Alis Temerin and John G.H. Cant, “The Evolutionary Divergence of Old World Monkeys and Apes”, The American Naturalist 122(3):335-351 (Sep., 1983), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/284139?journalCode=an (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[218] Russell H. Tuttle, “Chapter 5:  Apes in Motion”, Apes and Human Evolution, Harvard University Press (2014).

[219] David Begun, “Miocene Hominids and the Origins of the African Apes and Humans”, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 39 pp. 67-84 at 74 (6/14/2010), https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.anthro.012809.105047 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[220] Russell H. Tuttle, Apes and Human Evolution, Harvard University Press (Kindle eBook version, 2014), location 1151.

[221] Peter Andrews, “Species diversity and diet in monkeys and apes during the Miocene”, pp. 25 – 61 in Chris Stringer, ed. Aspects of Human Evolution, Taylor & Francis (Boston, 1982).  Also see the map by Dennis O’Neil, https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/primate/prim_6.htm for the range of living Old World monkeys and the map by Peter Sudmant,  http://www.washington.edu/news/2013/07/03/great-ape-genetic-diversity-catalog-frames-primate-evolution-and-future-conservation/ for the range of living great apes (both accessed, saved, and archived 10/20/19).

[222] Nancy J. Stevens et al., “Paleontological evidence for an Oligocene divergence between Old World monkeys and apes”, Nature 497, 611-614 (5/30/2013), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12161 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[223] Begun, “Miocene Hominids”, op. cit.

[224] James Hansen et al., “Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 371(2001):20120294 (10/28/2013), https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsta.2012.0294  (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[225] David Begun is the main proponent for the idea that African great apes descend from those apes that looped into Europe and back in the mid-Neogene.  He discusses this hypothesis in numerous papers such as “Miocene Hominids” (op. cit.) and his non-technical book The Real Planet of the Apes: A New Story of Human Origins, Princeton University Press (2016). 

[226] Susanne Cote argues against Begun and defends the traditional view that our ancestry was continuously African throughout the Miocene in “Origins of the African hominoids: an assessment of the paleobiogeographical evidence”, C.R. Palevol 3(4):323-340 (July, 2004), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1631068304000855?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[227] A genetic divergence of 13 MYA is consistent with a genealogical split of 7 – 10 MYA: See comment by John Hawks in Charles Choi, “Human and chimp genes may have split 13 million years ago”, Live Science, 6/12/2014, http://www.livescience.com/46300-chimpanzee-evolution-dna-mutations.html (accessed and saved 2/25/17, archived 10/20/19).  

[228] See e.g. Nathan M. Young et al., “Fossil hominin shoulders support an African ape-like last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees”, PNAS 112(38):11829-34 (9/22/2015), https://www.pnas.org/content/112/38/11829  (accessed and saved 10/20/19).  

[229] Peter Sudmant, “A map showing the geographical distribution of great apes in Africa” in Leila Gray, “Great ape genetic diversity catalog frames primate evolution and future conservation”, UW News (7/03/2013), University of Washington, https://www.washington.edu/news/2013/07/03/great-ape-genetic-diversity-catalog-frames-primate-evolution-and-future-conservation/ (accessed, saved, and archived 10/19/19). 

[230] Kameraad Pjotr and Eric Gaba, “Map of the fossil sites of the early hominids (4.4-1M BP)”, Wikimedia Commons (2009 – 2013), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_the_fossil_sites_of_the_early_hominids_(4.4-1M_BP).svg (accessed, saved, and archived 10/20/19).

[231] David Chivers and Claude Hladik, “Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in primates: Comparisons with other mammals in relation to diet”, Journal of Morphology 166(3):337-386 (Dec., 1980), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmor.1051660306 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[232] Lydia Olaka et al., “The sensitivity of East African rift lakes to climate fluctuations”, Journal of Paleolimnology 44(2):629-644 (4/30/2010), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10933-010-9442-4 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).  

[233] Susannah K.S. Thorpe, R.L. Holder, and Robin Huw Crompton, “Origin of Human Bipedalism as an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches”, Science 316(5829):1328-31 (6/01/2007), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/316/5829/1328 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[234] Russell H. Tuttle, Apes and Human Evolution (Kindle eBook version, 2014), location 4064.

[235] Carsten Niemitz, “The evolution of the upright posture and gait – a review and a new synthesis,” Naturwissenschaften 97(3):241-263 (Mar., 2010),  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00114-009-0637-3 (accessed and saved 3/11/2017).

[236] Kevin Uno et al., “Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa”, PNAS 113(23):6355-63 (6/06/2016), https://www.pnas.org/content/113/23/6355 (accessed and saved 3/05/2017).

[237] Christoph P.E. Zollikofer et al., “Virtual cranial reconstruction of Sahelanthropus tchadensis”, Nature 434, 755-759 (4/07/2005), abstract at https://www.nature.com/articles/nature03397 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).

[238] John Fleagle, Primate Adaptation and Evolution, 2ed., Academic Press (London, 1999), pp. 518 and 524.

[239] Warren Kinzey, “Evolution of the human canine tooth”, American Anthropologist 73(3):680-694 (Jun., 1971), https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1525/aa.1971.73.3.02a00100 (accessed and saved 10/20/19).  Kinzey refutes the majority interpretation that hominins descended from hominids with large canines.  His argument relies on the assumption that Dryopithecus, a fossil ape around the time of gorilla speciation, did not inherit its large honing canines from an ancestor in common with hominins.  Unpublished analysis by Begun suggests that Dryopithecus was a fossil gorilla.  See Jeff Hecht, “Ape fossils put the origin of humanity at 10 million years ago”, New Scientist (10/02/2015), https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn28274-ape-fossils-put-the-origin-of-humanity-at-10-million-years-ago/ (accessed and saved 10/20/19).     

[240] John Hawks, “Dentition and diet in early hominids” (2/06/2005), http://johnhawks.net/weblog/fossils/afarensis/early_hominid_dental_change.html (accessed and saved 3/12/2017, archived 10/22/19).

[241] Raymond Dart, “Australopithecus africanus: the Man-Ape from South Africa”, Nature no. 2884, vol. 115, pp. 195-199 at 196 (2/07/1925), https://www.nature.com/articles/115195a0 (accessed and saved 10/22/19).

[242] Leonard Greenfield, “Unicausal theories of human canine evolution: Are they sufficient?” Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie Bd. 78, H. 2 (Oktober 1990), pp. 155-168. Stable URL  https://www.jstor.org/stable/25757280 (accessed and saved 3/19/2017).

[243] Clark Spencer Larsen, Our Origins: Discovering Physical Anthropology, Norton (New York, 2008) pp. 276 – 277.

[244] John Fleagle, Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Academic Press (1999), pp. 515 and 518.

[245] Julia Lee-Thorp et al., “Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C4 resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2012; 109: 20369-20372. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/50/20369 (accessed and saved 3/19/2017).

[246] C.V. Ward, M.G. Leakey, and A. Walker, “Morphology of Australopithecus anamensis from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya”, J. Hum. Evol. 41(4):255-368 at 335-337 (Oct., 2001), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S004724840190507X  (accessed and saved 10/26/19).

[247] Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, Mariner Books (1996), Ch. 3.

[248] Corm image by JonRichfield, CC BY-SA 4.0,

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corms_of_Crocosmia,_entire,_partly_peeled,_and_split.jpg (accessed and archived 7/10/22).

[249] Richard Kay et al., “Sexual selection and Canine Dimorphism in New World Monkeys”, Am J Phys Anthropol 77(3):385-97 (Nov., 1988), (accessed and saved 3/19/2017). 

[250] Hawks (2005), op. cit.

[251] Zollikofer (2005), op. cit.

[252] Brunet et al., “A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa”, Nature 418:145-151 (7/11/2002), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature00879 (accessed and saved 10/26/19).

[253] Brigitte Senut et al., “First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya)”, Earth and Planetary Sciences 332(2):137-144 (1/30/2001), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294 (accessed and saved 10/26/19).

[254] Tim D. White et al., “Neither chimpanzee nor human, Ardipithecus reveals the surprising ancestry of both”, PNAS 112(16):4877-4884 (4/21/2015), http://www.pnas.org/content/112/16/4877.full (accessed and saved 3/25/2017).

[255] Gen Suwa et al., “Paleobiological Implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus Dentition”, Science 326(5949):69-99 (10/02/2009), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/326/5949/69 (accessed and saved 10/26/19).

[256] Tim White, “Early hominids – diversity or distortion?” Science 299(5615):1994-1997 (3/28/2003), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/299/5615/1994 (abstract accessed and saved 10/26/19).

[257] Sonia Harmand et al., “3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya”, Nature 521:310-326 (5/21/2015), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14464 (accessed and saved 10/27/19).

[258] Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, What Teeth Reveal about Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press (Kindle ebook edition, 2016) p. 47.

[259] Ann Gibbons, The First Human: The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors, Anchor Books (2007) is a good book about today’s cutting-edge practice of paleoanthropology, written for a general audience.

[260] Some textbooks present this as fact, including Larsen, Our Origins op. cit. at 288 – 293, and Chris Scarre (ed.), The Human Past, Thames & Hudson (2005), p. 60.

[261] Mikkelsen et al. (The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium), “Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome”, Nature 437:69-87 (9/01/2005), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7055/full/nature04072.html (accessed and saved 4/02/2017).

[262] John Allman, as quoted by Ingfei Chen in “Brain Cells for Socializing”, Smithsonian, June, 2009, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/brain-cells-for-socializing-133855450/?all (accessed and saved 4/09/2017, archived 10/27/19).

[263] John Allman, Atiya Hakeem, and Karla Watson, “Two Phylogenetic Specializations in the Human Brain”, Neuroscientist 8(4):335-346, 2002, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/107385840200800409 (accessed and saved 10/27/19).

[264] Robert Barton and Chris Vanditti, “Rapid Evolution of the Cerebellum in Humans and Other Great Apes”, Current Biology 24:2440-2444 (10/20/2014), https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(14)01069-0 (accessed and saved 4/09/2017).

[265] Alexandra Rosati et al., “The Evolutionary Origins of Human Patience: Temporal Preferences in Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Human Adults”, Current Biology 17:1663-1668 (10/09/2007), https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(07)01850-7 (accessed and saved 4/09/2017).

[266] Richard Byrne, The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence, Oxford University Press (New York, 1995) pp. 93 – 98.

[267] Wolfgang Köhler, Intelligenzprüfungen an Anthropoiden (The Mentality of Apes), 1917.  Köhler recorded his famous experiments on video, now easy to find e.g. at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwDhYUlbxiQ (accessed, saved, and archived 10/27/19).

[268] Harmand (2015), op. cit.

[269] Keith Hayes and Catherine Nissen, “Higher mental functions of a home-raised chimpanzee,” in Allan Schrier and Fred Stollnitz (eds.), Behavior of Nonhuman Primates:  Modern Research Trends vol. 4, pp. 59-115, Academic Press (1971), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780126291049500091 (paysite; summary accessed and saved 10/27/19).  This paper is quoted, summarized, and interpreted in Robbins Burling, The Talking Ape: How Language Evolved, Oxford University Press (Kindle eBook version, 2005) p. 70. 

[270] Francine G.P. Patterson and Ronald H. Cohn, “Language acquisition by a lowland gorilla: Koko’s first ten years of vocabulary development”, Word, 41(2):97-143 (6/16/2015), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00437956.1990.11435816 (accessed and saved 4/29/2017).

[271] The Gorilla Foundation, “Communication” (2019), https://www.koko.org/communication/ (accessed, saved, and archived 10/27/19).

[272] Joanne E. Tanner, Francine G. Patterson, and Richard W. Byrne, “The Development of Spontaneous Gestures in Zoo-living Gorillas and Sign-taught Gorillas:  From Action and Location to Object Representation”, Journal of Developmental Processes 1:69-102, https://risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk/portal/en/researchoutput/the-development-of-spontaneous-gestures-in-zooliving-gorillas-and-signtaught-gorillas-from-action-and-location-to-object-representation(ce96c6a2-ef05-453a-a080-7f012d6069a2).html (accessed and saved 4/30/17).

[273] Katie Slocombe and Klaus Zuberbühler, “Functionally Referential Communication in a Chimpanzee”, Current Biology 15(19):1779-1784 (10/11/2005), https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(05)01040-7  (accessed and saved 4/30/2017).

[274] Muhammad A. Spocter et al., “Wernicke’s area homologue in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and its relation to the appearance of modern human language”, Proc. R. Soc. B 277(1691):1-10  (3/17/2010), https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2010.0011  (accessed and saved 4/30/2017). 

[275] Gary Clark and Maciej Henneberg, “Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of language and signing:  An early origin for hominin vocal capability”, HOMO – Journal of Comparative Human Biology 68(2):101-121 (Mar., 2017), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0018442X17300124 (accessed and saved 6/02/18).

[276] The phrase “theory of mind” was coined by David Premack and Guy Woodruff, “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1(4):515-526 (Dec., 1978), https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences/article/does-the-chimpanzee-have-a-theory-of-mind/1E96B02CD9850016B7C93BC6D2FEF1D0 (accessed and saved 10/27/19).

[277] James R. Anderson, “Monkeys with mirrors:  Some questions for primate psychology”, International Journal of Primatology 5(1):81-98 (Feb. 1984), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02735149 (accessed and partly saved 10/27/19), as summarized / interpreted in Byrne (1995), op. cit. at 112-113.

[278] Gordon Gallup, “Chimpanzees:  Self-Recognition”, Science, New Series 167(3914):86-87 (1/02/1970), 86-87, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/167/3914/86 (accessed and saved 10/27/19).

[279] Gallup (1970), ibid.

[280] Whales:  Diana Reiss and Lori Marino, “Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence”, PNAS 98(10):5937-5942, http://www.pnas.org/content/98/10/5937.full , accessed and saved 4/16/2017.

[281] Elephants:  Joshua Plotnik et al., “Self-recognition in an Asian elephant”, PNAS 103(45):17053-7 (2006), 17053-17057, http://www.pnas.org/content/103/45/17053.abstract (accessed and saved 4/16/2017).

[282] Daniel Povinelli, “Social intelligence in monkeys and apes”, PhD thesis, Yale University (1991), https://www.researchgate.net/publication/34257406_Social_intelligence_in_monkeys_and_apes (accessed and saved 10/27/19) as summarized and interpreted in Byrne (1995), op. cit. at 111.

[283] Daniel Povinelli, Kurt Nelson, and Sarah Boysen, “Inferences About Guessing and Knowing by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)”, Journal of Comparative Psychology 104(3):203-210 (Sep., 1990), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2225758 (accessed and saved 10/27/19).

[284] Daniel Povinelli, Kurt Nelson, and Sarah Boysen, “Comprehension of role reversal in chimpanzees: evidence of empathy?”, Animal Behaviour, 43(4):633-640 (Apr., 1992), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000334720581022X (accessed and saved 10/27/19).

[285] Frans de Waal, Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved, Princeton University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2006) p. 31.

[286] de Waal (2006), ibid. at 33 ff.

[287] Frans de Waal, Our Inner Ape, The Berkeley Publishing Group (Kindle eBook edition, 2005) page 71 / location 1092.

[288] For a remarkable firsthand account, see Franz de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes, Johns Hopkins University Press (1979).  De Waal observed a troupe of chimpanzees in which two males conspired to murder a competitor.

[289] R.I.M. Dunbar, “Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates”, Journal of Human Evolution 22(6):469-493 (Jun., 1992), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/004724849290081J (accessed and saved 9/07/19).

[290] Jane Goodall, The Chimpanees of Gombe:  Patterns of Behavior, Belknap Press (1986).

[291] Tyler Tretsven, “Chimpanzee Warfare”, The Cultural Niche (4/12/2012), https://tylertretsven.wordpress.com/2012/04/12/chimpanzee-warfare/ (accessed and saved 4/23/2017, archived 10/27/19).

[292] Jane Goodall, Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2010).

[293] de Waal (2005) op. cit. at p. 147 / location 2178.

[294] Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, Mariner Books (1996), p. 155.

[295] Jill Pruetz et al., “Intragroup Lethal Aggression in West African Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus): Inferred Killing of a Former Alpha Male at Fongoli, Senegal”, Int. J. Primatol 38(1):31-57 (Feb. 2017), pp. 31-57, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10764-016-9942-9 (accessed and saved 4/23/2017). 

[296] Goodall (1986), op. cit.

[297] Ian Morris, War!  What is it Good For? Farrar, Straus, and Giroux (2014), p. 289.

[298] Barbara Smuts, “The Evolutionary Origins of Patriarchy”, Human Nature 6(1):11 (1995),  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02734133 (accessed and saved 4/02/17).

[299] Wrangham and Peterson (1996), op. cit. at 65 – 66.

[300] de Waal (2006), op. cit. at p. 54.

[301] Proconsul image by Nobu Tamura (http://spinops.blogspot.com) CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Proconsul_NT.jpg (accessed and saved 5/13/17).

[302] Ashley S. Hammond et al., “Middle Miocene Pierolapithecus provides a first glimpse into early hominid pelvic morphology”, Journal of Human Evolution 64(6):658-666 (June 2013),  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0047248413000742 (accessed and saved 10/27/19).  

[303] Pau image licensed from Todd Marshall.  See Todd’s wonderful paleoart and fantasy / horror / sci-fi illustrations at www.marshalls-art.com .  I wish I could paint like that!

[304] Merci beaucoup to Elisabeth Daynes, the world’s greatest paleosculptor, for permission to use this image in HLGTW!  See more of Elisabeth’s incredible work at https://www.ElisabethDaynes.com/paleoart-reconstructions/ .

[305] A. afarensis reconstruction:  Cicero Moraes, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australopithecus_afarensis.png (accessed, saved, and archived 7/11/21).

Chapter 6 Citations

[306] Iceberg picture by MoteOo, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/iceberg-above-water-white-cold-3273216/.  Accessed, saved, and archived 9/27/20.  Hourglass image same as Chapter 10 (notes 1 and 2).  Titanic image by Raf Verbraeken, BE, Creative Commons, https://thenounproject.com/term/titanic/158694/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/27/20).  Icicle image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/vectors/signs-symbols-icicle-icicles-frost-26350/ (accessed and saved 1/03/21).  Lifesaver image by Annalise Art, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/summer-flotation-device-life-saver-4128400/ (accessed and saved 1/03/21). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.      

[307] Ice ages image: Wannapik Studio, https://www.wannapik.com/vectors/6500.  Nose icon by Rachel Healey, https://thenounproject.com/term/nose/10826/ . Campfire icon by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/campfire-fire-logs-burning-wood-295095/. Oldowan image by José-Manuel Benito Álvarez / CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Retoque_denticulado.png. Acheulean image by Locutus Borg / Public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hand_axe_spanish.gif. Hunter icon by OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/lance-javelin-throw-shaft-throwing-150317/.  Asia image by Clkr-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/map-asia-continent-rotated-307197/ .  Europe image by Rob984, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mainland_Europe_(orthographic_projection).svg .  Footprint image by Mohamed_hassan, https://pixabay.com/vectors/footprint-foot-feet-step-food-3609327/ .  Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.  

[308] Arwyn Edwards, “Glacier ecosystems”, AntarcticGlaciers.org (3/03/2014), http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glacier-processes/glacier-ecosystems/ (saved 2/03/18, accessed and archived 11/02/19).

[309] Chris Colose, “Milankovitch Cycles”, Skeptical Science (7/22/2011), https://www.skepticalscience.com/Milankovitch.html (accessed and saved 2/3/18, archived 11/02/19).

[310] Eccentricity image by user RJHall, CC-BY-SA-2.0 license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kepler3.gif (accessed and saved 2/03/18, archived 11/02/19).

[311] Precession image “Fig. 55. – Conical Motion of Earth’s Axis”  from Charles Augustus Young, Manual of Astronomy, p. 145, Ginn and Company (1902, 2ed Boston, 1912), via archive.org, https://archive.org/details/manualofastronom00younrich/page/144 (accessed, saved, and bookmarked 11/02/19).

[312] Obliquity image by Robert Simmon, from Steve Graham, “Milutin Milankovitch (1879 – 1958)”, Earth Observatory p. 2 (3/24/2000), in the public domain as the work of the US government agency NASA GSFC, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/Milankovitch/milankovitch_2.php (saved 2/03/2018, accessed and archived 11/02/19).

[313] Guy Worthey, “Astronomy: precession of earth”, Washington State University (9/12/2000),  http://astro.wsu.edu/worthey/astro/html/lec-precession.html (accessed and saved 2/03/18, archived 11/02/19).

[314] Jung-Eun Lee et al., “Hemispheric sea ice distribution sets the glacial tempo”, Geophysical Research Letters 44(2):1008-14 (1/27/2017), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL071307/full (accessed 1/28/18, saved 11/02/19).

[315] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “Glacial-Interglacial Cycles” (date unknown), https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/abrupt-climate-change/Glacial-Interglacial%20Cycles (accessed and saved 1/28/2018, archived 11/02/19).

[316] Thure E. Cerling et al., “Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years”, Nature 476:51-56 at 55 (8/4/2011), http://www.nature.com/articles/nature10306 (accessed and saved 2/11/2018).

[317] Reid Ferring et al., “Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma”, PNAS 108(26):10432-6 (6/28/2011), http://www.pnas.org/content/108/26/10432 (accessed and saved 2/18/2018).

[318] Takeshi Nishimura et al., “Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo”, PLOS Computational Biology 12(3): e1004807 (3/24/2016), https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004807 (accessed and saved 11/09/19).

[319] Matthias Meyer et al., “Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins”, Nature 531:504-518 (3/24/2016), www.nature.com/articles/nature17405 (accessed 2/18/18, saved 11/03/19).

[320] Meyer (2016), ibid. at 506.

[321] The forms named thus far include Homo antecessor, cepranensis, erectus, ergaster, floresiensis, gautengensis, georgicus, habilis, heidelbergensis, luzonensis, naledi, neanderthalensis, rhodesiensis, rudolfensis, sapiens, and tsaichangensis, as well as the Denisovans and the Red Deer Cave People.  Wikipedia contributors, “Homo,” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homo&oldid=979218569  (accessed 9/20/20).

[322] Alan Templeton, “Chapter 7:  Human Population History over the Last Two Million Years”, Human Population Genetics and Genomics, Academic Press/Elsevier, Oxford (2019), esp. at 207 – 208. 

[323] Peter Bellwood, “Chapter 3:  Migrating Hominins and the Rise of Our Own Species”, First Migrants, Wiley-Blackwell (2013) pp. 36 – 70 at 37 (Figure 3.1) and 51.

[324] Alan R. Templeton, “Out of Africa again and again”, Nature 416, 45-51 (3/07/2002), www.nature.com/articles/416045a (accessed and saved 2/24/2018).

[325] Richard E. Green et al., “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome”, Science 328(5979):710-722 (5/07/2010), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100745/ (accessed and saved 3/10/2018).

[326] Naoyuki Takahata, Sang-Hee Lee, and Yoko Satta, “Testing Multiregionality of Modern Human Origins”, Molecular Biology and Evolution 18(2):172-183 (2/01/2001), https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/18/2/172/1079265 (accessed and saved 9/20/20).  See esp. Table 2, p. 178.

[327] Graph: Most data points taken from Chris Scarre, ed., The Human Past, Thames & Hudson (London, 2005), pp.62 – 65 and 90 – 91.  Graph by Scot Fagerland.   

[328] I based this calculation on a CC of 450 cc for A. afarensis and 1,350 cc for H. sapiens, and a male-female average mass of 36 kg for A. afarensis and 63 kg for proper weight H. sapiens.

[329] Kwang Hyun Ko, “Origins of human intelligence: The chain of tool-making and brain evolution”, Anthropological Notebooks 22 (1):5-22 (Apr., 2016), http://www.drustvo-antropologov.si/AN/PDF/2016_1/Anthropological_Notebooks_XXII_1_Ko.pdf  (accessed and saved 3/18/18).

[330] The “social intelligence hypothesis” grew out of Alison Jolly’s research on primates in general.  See e.g. Alison Jolly, “Lemur Social Behavior and Primate Intelligence”, Science 153(3735):501-506 (July, 1966), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/153/3735/501 (accessed and saved 3/18/18).

[331] Javier DeFelipe, “The evolution of the brain, the human nature of cortical circuits, and intellectual creativity”, Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, vol. 5 Article 29 (May, 2011), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3098448/ (accessed and saved 3/18/2018).

[332] William H. Calvin, The Ascent of Mind, iUniverse.com publishers (Lincoln, NE, 2000), especially Chapter 3.

[333] Donald Clarke and Louis Sokoloff, “Circulation and energy metabolism in the brain”, Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, 6th ed., 637 ff. at 650-651, G.J. Siegel editor, Lippincott-Raven Publishers (Philadelphia, 1999), https://fordham.bepress.com/chem_facultypubs/81/ (saved 3/18/18, last accessed 11/03/19).

[334] Suzana Herculano-Houzel, “The Remarkable, Yet Not Extraordinary, Human Brain as a Scaled-Up Primate Brain and Its Associated Cost”, In the Light of Evolution Volume VI: Brain and Behavior, National Academies Press (Washington, DC, 1/25/2013) Ch. 8, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK207181/ (accessed and saved 3/11/18).

[335] Gerhard Roth and Ursula Dicke, “Evolution of the brain and intelligence”, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9(5):250-257 (May, 2005), https://www.cell.com/trends/cognitive-sciences/fulltext/S1364-6613(05)00082-3 (saved 3/10/18, last accessed 11/03/19).

[336] Mark V. Flinn, “Evolutionary Anthropology of the Human Family”, Ch. 2 of The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology, Todd K. Shackelford and Catherine A. Salmon, ed., Oxford University Press (New York, 2011), pp. 12 – 32, https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195396690.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195396690-e-002 (saved 5/26/18, last accessed 11/04/19).  On p. 13, Flinn enumerates ways in which the human brain has grown more complex as well as large.

[337] For example, see Julie J. Lesnik and J. Francis Thackeray, “The efficiency of stone and bone tools for opening termite mounds: implications for hominid tool use at Swartrkrans”, South African Journal of Science 103(9-10):354-356 (Sep – Oct 2007), http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0038-23532007000500002 (saved 3/25/18, last accessed 11/04/19).

[338] Shannon McPherron et al., “Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia”, Nature 466:857-860 (8/12/2010), http://www.nature.com/articles/nature09248 (accessed and saved 3/25/18, last accessed 11/04/19).

[339] Deborah Olausson, “The Use and Abuse of Experimental Flintknapping in Archaeology”, in H. Nami (ed.) Experiments and Interpretation of Traditional Technologies: Essays in Honor of Errett Callahan (Lund University, 1/1/2010) pp. 37-56 at 37-38, https://portal.research.lu.se/portal/en/publications/the-use-and-abuse-of-experimental-flintknapping-in-archaeology(ce0e4116-4593-4195-a69a-bfbd8aa7e0e7).html (saved 3/24/18, last accessed 11/04/19).  Corroborated by personal correspondence with expert knapper Thomas Schorr-kon (2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FA2SNM9ueP4&lc=z22agn2arxfhxphjo04t1aokgrnbbemkvxvutexixv5mrk0h00410.1525729724968289

[340] Carol Ward et al., “Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology”, PNAS 111(1):121-124 (1/07/2014), http://www.pnas.org/content/111/1/121 (accessed and saved 3/25/18, last accessed 11/04/19).

[341] Shannon McPherron et al., “Evidence for Stone-Tool-Assisted Consumption of Animal Tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia”, Nature 466:857-860 (8/12/2010), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature09248 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[342] David R. Braun et al., “Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya”, PNAS 107(22):10002-7 (6/01/2010), www.pnas.org/content/107/22/10002 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[343] Joanne Bradbury, “Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA): An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain”, Nutrients 3(5):529-554 (May, 2011), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257695/#B1-nutrients-03-00529 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[344] Henry Bunn and Alia Gurtov, “Prey mortality profiles indicate that Early Pleistocene Homo at Olduvai was an ambush predator”, Quaternary International 322-323:44-53 (11/23/2013), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618213008641 (saved 4/15/18, last accessed 11/10/19).

[345] J.A.J. Gowlett, “The discovery of fire by humans: a long and convoluted process”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371(1696):20150164 (6/05/2016), http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/371/1696/20150164 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[346] Francesco Berna et al., “Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa”, PNAS 109(20):E1215-E1220 (5/15/2012), https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1117620109 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[347] Kristen Hawkes, James O’Connell, and Nicholas Jones, “Hunting and Nuclear Families”, Current Anthropology 42(5):681-709 (Dec., 2001), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/322559 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[348] David J. Chivers and Claude Marcel Hladik, “Morphology of the gastrointestinal tract in primates: Comparisons with other mammals in relation to diet”, Journal of Morphology 166(3):337-86 (Dec., 1980), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jmor.1051660306 (saved 4/15/18, last accessed 11/10/19).

[349] Leslie C. Aiello and Peter Wheeler, “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis: The Brain and the Digestive System in Human and Primate Evolution”, Current Anthropology 36(2):199-221 (Apr., 1995), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/204350 (accessed 4/15/18).

[350] Craig B. Stanford, The Hunting Apes: Meat Eating and the Origins of Human Behavior, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1999).

[351] Elia Psouni, Axel Janke, and Martin Garwicz, “Impact of Carnivory on Human Development and Evolution Revealed by a New Unifying Model of Weaning in Mammals”, PLoS ONE 7(4): e32452, http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0032452 (accessed and saved 4/15/18).

[352] Nina G. Jablonski, Skin: A Natural History, University of California Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2013), location 531

[353] David R. Carrier, “The Energetic Paradox of Human Running and Hominid Evolution”, Current Anthropology 25(4):483-495, (Aug. – Oct., 1984), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/203165 (accessed and saved 4/22/18).

[354] Carrier, ibid., and related literature.

[355] Dennis M. Bramble and Daniel E. Lieberman, “Endurance running and the evolution of Homo”, Nature 432:345-352 (11/18/2004), http://www.nature.com/articles/nature03052 (accessed and saved 4/22/18).

[356] David Attenborough, Persistence Hunting, BBCi, (2002),  https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p009lwhq (accessed and archived 11/10/19).

[357] BBC News, “Kenyans chase down and catch goat-killing cheetahs” (11/15/2013) www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-24953910 (accessed and saved 5/06/18, archived 11/10/19).

[358] Travis Rayne Pickering and Henry T. Bunn, “The endurance running hypothesis and hunting and scavenging in savanna-woodlands”, Journal of Human Evolution 53(4):434-438 (Oct., 2007), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248407001327?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 4/22/18).

[359] John J. Shea, “Lithic Archaeology, or, What Stone Tools Can (and Can’t) Tell Us about Early Hominin Diets”, In Peter Ungar (Ed.) Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown and the Unknowable, pp. 212-229. Oxford University Press (Oxford, 2006).

[360] Deborah Kleiman, “Monogamy in mammals”, The Quarterly Review of Biology 52(1):39-69 (Mar., 1977), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/409721 (accessed and saved 9/20/20).

[361] Flinn (2011), op. cit. at 19.

[362] Robert J. Quinlan, “Human Pair-Bonds: Evolutionary Functions, Ecological Variation, and Adaptive Development”, Evolutionary Anthropology 17(5):227-238 (Sep. – Oct., 2008), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/evan.20191 (saved 5/12/18, last accessed 11/10/19).

[363] Sandi R. Copeland et al., “Strontium isotope evidence for landscape use by early hominins”, Nature 474, 76-78 (6/02/2011), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature10149 (accessed and saved 6/30/18).

[364] Sergey Gavrilets, “Human origins and the transition from promiscuity to pair-bonding”, PNAS 109(25):9923-9928 (6/19/2012), http://www.pnas.org/content/109/25/9923 (accessed and saved 5/13/18).

[365] Richard D. Alexander, “How Did Humans Evolve? Reflections on the Uniquely Unique Species”, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (1990), https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/57178 (accessed and saved 5/12/18).

[366] Jared Diamond, The Third Chimpanzee, Harper Collins (New York, 2006) pp. 83 – 84.

[367] Anne E. Storey and Toni E. Ziegler, “Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience”, Horm Behav. 77:260-271 (January, 2016), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968077/pdf/nihms804454.pdf (accessed and saved 6/02/18).

[368] George Peter Murdock, Social Structure, The MacMillan Company (New York, 1949), https://archive.org/details/socialstructure00murd (accessed 5/27/18).

[369] Flinn, op. cit., p. 16. 

[370] Tobias Riede et al., “Mammalian laryngseal air sacs add variability to the vocal tract impedance: Physical and computational modeling”, J Acoustic Soc. Am. 124(1):634-47 (July, 2008), https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.2924125 (accessed and saved 11/16/19).

[371] Daniel Currie Hall, “Interactive Sagittal Section”, http://smu-facweb.smu.ca/~s0949176/sammy/ (accessed and archived 11/16/19) is a very well-done app mapping placement of the lips and tongue to numerous sounds.

[372] Daniel L. Everett, How Language Began, Liveright Publishing, 2017.

[373] Philip Lieberman and Robert McCarthy, “Tracking the Evolution of Language and Speech”, Expedition 49(2):15-20 (2007), http://www.cog.brown.edu/people/lieberman/pdfFiles/Lieberman,%20P.%20&%20McCarthy,%20R.%202007.%20Tracking%20the%20evolution%20of.pdf (accessed and saved 6/02/2018, archived 11/16/19).

[374] Ignacio Martinez et al., “Human hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain)”, Journal of Human Evolution 54(1):118-124 (Jan., 2008), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004724840700139X?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 6/10/2018).

[375] Ignacio Martinez et al., “Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain”, PNAS 101(27):9976-9981 (7/06/2004), http://www.pnas.org/content/101/27/9976 (accessed and saved 6/10/2018).

[376] Ann M. MacLarnon and Gwen P. Hewitt, “The evolution of human speech: The role of enhanced breathing control”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 109(3):341-343 (7/01/1999), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/%28SICI%291096-8644%28199907%29109%3A3%3C341%3A%3AAID-AJPA5%3E3.0.CO%3B2-2 (accessed and saved 6/10/2018).

[377] Bart de Boer, “Evolution of speech and evolution of language”, Psychon Bull Rev 24:158-162 (2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13423-016-1130-6 (accessed and saved 6/03/18).

[378] W. Tecumseh Fitch and David Reby, “The descended larynx is not uniquely human”, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268:1669-1675 (2001), https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2001.1704 (saved 6/03/2018, last accessed 11/16/19).

[379] Carrier (1984), op. cit.

[380] A. sediba reconstruction:  Neanderthal-Museum, Mettmann, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Australopithecus_sediba_(Fundort_Malapa).jpg.  (Accessed, saved, and archived 7/11/21).   

[381] Oldowan chopper image by Locutus Borg (Public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Canto_tallado_2-Guelmim-Es_Semara.jpg (accessed and saved 11/17/19).

[382] H. habilis CGI by Cicero Moraes (2013), CC BY-SA 4.0 license, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homo_habilis_-_forensic_facial_reconstruction.png (accessed, saved, and archived 8/01/21).

[383] H. erectus model: Neanderthal-Museum, Mettmann, https://www.neanderthal.de/de/urmenschen.html (accessed, saved, and archived 7/17/21).

[384] H. erectus pekinensis simulation:  Cicero Moraes, CC BY 3.0 license, via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homo_erectus_pekinensis_-_wireframe.png (accessed, saved, and archived 7/17/21).

[385] Acheulean hand axe photograph by Locutus Borg (Public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bifaz_de_Atapuerca_(TG10).jpg (accessed and saved 3/25/18).

[386] Hannah Fluck, “Initial observations from experiments into the possible use of fire with stone tools in the manufacture of the Clacton Point”, Lithics 28:15-19 (2007), http://journal.lithics.org/index.php/lithics/article/view/403/0 (accessed and saved 11/23/19).

[387] Spear photograph by P. Pfarr NLD, CC BY-SA 3.0 de, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sch%C3%B6ningen_Speer_VII_im_Sediment_1997_%C2%A9_P._Pfarr_NLD.jpg (accessed and saved 11/23/19).

Chapter 5 Citations

[388] Hourglass image:  Same source as other chapters. Cloud image from YoPriceVille, https://gallery.yopriceville.com/Free-Clipart-Pictures/Cloud-PNG/Cartoon_Clouds_Set_Transparent_PNG_Clip_Art_Image#.YssEHDfMLre ; Deciduous Tree image:  Same as Ch. 7; Fir tree image by Christopher Lague, released into the public domain, https://pixy.org/196007/ .  Troll image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/vectors/troll-monster-fantasy-goblin-1300185/ .  Hill image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/vectors/hill-map-symbols-grass-topography-31597/ .  Sun god image by Symbolon, IT, Creative Commons, https://thenounproject.com/icon/sun-god-1007754/ .  Pendant image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/vectors/amulet-pendant-twig-branch-wood-575468/ . Axe image by ArtsyBeeKids, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/axe-stone-tool-hammer-age-5657080/ . Brown feather image by Tajuana Delamora, https://pixy.org/4684910/ . Blue feather image by Long Pyles, https://pixy.org/4686670/ . Composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[389] Shaman image by Herb Roe, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:S.E.C.C._shaman_dancing_HRoe_2008.jpg. Skull image by Christopher Lague, CC0, https://pixy.org/154066/. Australia map by Swompy, CC0, https://pixy.org/154066/  . Boy image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, Pixabay license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/aboriginal-australia-boy-man-161609/ . Tool image by Jose-Manual Benito, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://pixabay.com/vectors/aboriginal-australia-boy-man-161609/  . All accessed, saved, and archived 1/16/21. Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[390] Clive Finlayson, The Humans Who Went Extinct, Oxford University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2009) p. 109.

[391] Yuji Yokoyama et al., “Gamma-ray spectrometric dating of late Homo erectus skulls from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, Indonesia”, J. Hum. Evol. 55(2):274-7 (August, 2008), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004724840800047X (accessed and saved 12/14/19).  

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[396] Matthias Meyer et al., “A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual”, Science 338(6104):222-6 (10/12/2012), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936568 (accessed and saved 8/12/18). 

[397] “World’s oldest needle found in Siberian cave that stitches together human history”, The Siberian Times, 8/23/2016, https://siberiantimes.com/science/casestudy/news/n0711-worlds-oldest-needle-found-in-siberian-cave-that-stitches-together-human-history/ (accessed and saved 8/12/18, archived 12/14/19).  I take this article with a grain of salt.  A related article in DailyMail.com mentioned a 2017 meeting with international scientists to corroborate that the artifacts were Denisovan-made.  If there ever was such a meeting, I cannot find its report.  

[398] Debbie Argue et al., “The affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of cranial, dental, and postcranial characters”, Journal of Human Evolution 107:107-133 (June, 2017). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248417300866 (Accessed and saved 12/14/19).

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[400] Chris Stringer as interviewed by Robin McKie in “How a hobbit is rewriting the history of the human race”, The Guardian (2/20/2010), https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/feb/21/hobbit-rewriting-history-human-race (accessed and saved 8/12/18, archived 12/14/19). 

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[404] Daniel Richter et al., “The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age”, Nature 546, 293-296 (6/08/2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature22335 (accessed and saved 8/19/18).

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[407] Chad D. Huff et al., “Mobile elements reveal small population size in the ancient ancestors of Homo sapiens”, PNAS 107(5):2147-2152 (2/02/2010), http://www.pnas.org/content/107/5/2147 (accessed and saved 9/01/18).

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[409] Christopher Seddon, “The long African dawn”, Humans: from the beginning, Glanville Publications (Kindle revised ebook, 2015) Ch. 10.

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[411] Nick A. Drake et al., “Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara explain the peopling of the desert”, PNAS Early Edition (12/27/2010), http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/12/23/1012231108 (accessed and saved 8/19/18).

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[414] Wu Liu et al., “The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China”, Nature 526:696-699 (10/29/2015), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature15696 (accessed and saved 12/14/19).

[415] Gili Greenbaum et al., “Disease transmission and introgression can explain the long-lasting contact zone of modern humans and Neanderthals”, Nature Communications 10:5003 (11/01/2019), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12862-7 (accessed and saved 11/28/20).

[416] Sriram Sankararaman et al., “The Date of Interbreeding between Neandertals and Modern Humans”, PLOS Genetics 8(10): e1002947 (10/04/2012), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002947 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[417] Sriram Sankararaman et al., “The Combined Landscape of Denisovan and Neanderthal Ancestry in Present-Day Humans”, Current Biology 26(9):, 1241-7 (5/09/2016), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.037 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[418] Mark Collard et al., “Faunal evidence for a difference in clothing use between Neanderthals and early modern humans in Europe”, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Vol. 44 Part B, 235-246 (12/2016), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278416516300757 (accessed and saved 12/15/19). 

[419] Michael P. Richards et al., “Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes”, PNAS 97(13), 7663-7666 (6/20/2000), http://www.pnas.org/content/97/13/7663 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[420] Tanya M. Smith et al., “Dental evidence for ontogenetic differences between modern humans and Neanderthals”, PNAS 107(49):20923-8 (12/07/2010), http://www.pnas.org/content/107/49/20923 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[421] Antonio Rosas, “The growth pattern of Neandertals, reconstructed from a juvenile skeleton from El Sidron (Spain)”, Science 357(6357):1282-1287 (9/22/2017), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6357/1282 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[422] Anders Eriksson et al., “Late Pleistocene climate change and the global expansion of anatomically modern humans”, PNAS 109(40):16089-94 (10/02/2012), https://www.pnas.org/content/109/40/16089 (accessed and saved 2/02/20).

[423] Tom Higham et al., “The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance”, Nature 512:306-309 (8/21/2014), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13621 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[424] Sharon R. Browning et al., “Analysis of Human Sequence Data Reveals Two Pulses of Archaic Denisovan Admixture”, Cell 173(1):53-61.E9 (3/22/2018), https://www.cell.com/cell/comments/S0092-8674(18)30175-2 (accessed and saved 9/02/18).

[425] Emilia Huerta-Sanchez et al., “Altitude adaptation in Tibetans caused by introgression of Denisovan-like DNA”, Nature 512(7513):194ff. (July, 2014), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature13408 (accessed and saved 12/15/19).

[426] David W. Cameron, “Appendix: Detailed Description of Characters”, Bones, Stones, and Molecules (with Colin P. Groves), Elsevier Academic Press (2004), pp. 287 – 344.  Cameron lists 19 metrics in which sapiens differs from ergaster, and five of them give sapiens a disadvantage in chewing strength.

[427] Mary Doria Russell et al., “The Supraorbital Torus: ‘A Most Remarkable Peculiarity’”, Current Anthropology 26(3):337-360 (June, 1985), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/203279?journalCode=ca (abstract accessed and saved 12/15/19).

[428] Jean-Jacques Hublin et al., “New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens”, Nature 546:289-292 (6/08/2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature22336 (accessed and saved 8/19/18).

[429] Teresa Rito et al., “The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa”, PLOS ONE 8(11):1-16 at 2 (November, 2013), https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/citation?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080031 (accessed and saved 9/23/18).

[430] Neus Martinez-Abadias et al., “Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape”, Evolution 66-4: 1010-1023 (10/31/2011), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01496.x (accessed and saved 9/09/18).  

[431] Daniel E. Lieberman, “Sphenoid shortening and the evolution of modern human cranial shape”, Nature vol. 393 pp. 158 – 162 (5/14/1998), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9603517 (accessed and saved 9/04/18).

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Right figure: By Ichthyovenator, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sapiens_Skull.png (both accessed and saved 9/09/18, archived 12/31/19).

[433] Timothy M. Ryan and Colin N. Shaw, “Gracility of the modern Homo sapiens skeleton is the result of decreased biomechanical loading”, PNAS vol. 112, no. 2, 372-377 (1/13/2015), http://www.pnas.org/content/112/2/372 (accessed and saved 9/04/18).

[434] Christopher B. Ruff, “Gracilization of the Modern Human Skeleton”, American Scientist 94(6):508-514 (Nov., 2006), https://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/gracilization-of-the-modern-human-skeleton-5 (accessed and saved 9/04/18).

[435] Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson, “Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution”, Nature 325, 31-36 (01/01/1987), https://www.nature.com/articles/325031a0 (accessed and saved 9/23/18).

[436] Teresa Rito et al., “The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa”, PLOS ONE vol. 8 issue 11 (November, 2013), https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/citation?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080031 (accessed and saved 9/23/18).

[437] Robert L. Dorit, Hiroki Akashi, and Walter Gilbert, “Absence of polymorphism at the ZFY locus on the human Y chromosome”, Science 268(5214):1183-1185 (5/26/1995), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/268/5214/1183/tab-pdf (accessed and saved 9/23/18).

[438] Fulvio Cruciani et al., “A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa”, Am J Hum Genet 88(6): 814-818 (6/10/2011), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3113241/ (accessed and saved 9/23/18).

[439] Monika Karmin et al., “A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture”, Genome Research 25:459-466 at 461 (April, 2015), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4381518/ (accessed and saved 9/22/18).

[440] Population bottleneck image by C. Rottensteiner (TiGen), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/MtDNA-MRCA-generations-Evolution.svg (accessed and saved 9/22/18, archived 12/31/19).

[441] Carsten Wiuf and Jotun Hein, “On the Number of Ancestors to a DNA Sequence”, Genetics 147(3):1459-68 (Nov. 1997), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9383085 (accessed and saved 9/22/18). 

[442] Tatiana M. Karafet et al., “New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree”, Genome Res. 18(5): 830-838 (May, 2008), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/ (accessed and saved 9/30/18).

[443] Chris Clarkson et al., “Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago”, Nature 547, 306-310 (7/20/2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature22968 (accessed and saved 9/16/18).

[444] Sander van der Kaars et al., “Humans rather than climate the primary cause of Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in Australia”, Nature Communications 8, article 14142 (1/20/2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14142 (accessed and saved 11/04/18).

[445] Anthony W.F. Edwards, “Human genetic diversity: Lewontin’s fallacy”, BioEssays 25:798-801 (7/18/2003), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bies.10315 (accessed and saved 9/30/18).

[446] Richard Lewontin, “The Apportionment of Human Diversity”. In: T. Dobzhansky, M.K. Hecht, W.C. Steere (eds) Evolutionary Biology, Springer, 381-397 (New York, 1972), https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4684-9063-3_14 (accessed and saved 9/30/18).

[447] The two best tests for identifying your Y and mtDNA haplogroups are www.23AndMe.com and www.FamilyTreeDNA.com .  23AndMe also includes a Neanderthal report.  Both services provide autosomal analysis for your pre-colonial ancestral-region pie chart.  23AndMe is better for genetic health screening, while FamilyTreeDNA is preferred by genealogists (to locate distant cousins). 

[448] Michael S. Gazzaniga, Human, Harper Collins (Kindle eBook version, 2008) p. 22.

[449] Todd Preuss, “Association Cortex Size”, Matrix of Comparative Anthropogeny (MOCA), Center for Academic Research & Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA) (c. 2011) https://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/topics/association-cortex-size (accessed and saved 12/16/18, archived 12/15/19).

[450] Xiang Li et al., “Human torque is not present in chimpanzee brain”, NeuroImage vol. 165 pp. 285-293 (1/15/2018), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811917308303?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 12/15/19).

[451] Theodore Rasmussen and B. Milner, “Clinical and Surgical Studies of the Cerebral Speech Areas in Man”, in K.J. Zulch, O. Creutzfeldt, and G.C. Galbraith (eds.), Cerebral Localization pp. 238 – 257, Springer-Verlag (1975), https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-66204-1_19 (abstract accessed and saved 11/23/19).  As cited by Marian Annett, Handedness and Brain Asymmetry, Psychology Press (Kindle eBook version, 2002) location 518.  My 98% estimate uses the simplifying assumptions that the Rasmussen sample represents the general population and that 10% of the population is left-handed.

[452] Marian Annett, Handedness and Brain Asymmetry, Psychology Press (Kindle eBook version, 2002) location 376.

[453] MOCA Author, “Volume of Temporal Lobe White Matter”, Matrix of Comparative Anthropogeny (MOCA),  Center for Academic Research & Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA),  https://carta.anthropogeny.org/moca/topics/volume-temporal-lobe-white-matter (accessed and saved 12/16/18, archived 12/15/19).

[454] Gazzaniga (2008), op. cit. at 36.

[455] Eszter Boldog et al., “Transcriptomic and morphophysiological evidence for a specialized human cortical GABA-ergic cell type”, Nature Neuroscience 21, 1185-1195 (8/27/2018), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-018-0205-2 (accessed and saved 10/27/18).

[456] I. Bystron et al., “The first neurons of the human cerebral cortex”, Nat. Neurosci. 9(7):880-6 (July, 2006), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16783367 (accessed and saved 10/07/18).

[457] Patrick D. Evans et al., “Microcephalin, a Gene Regulating Brain Size, Continues to Evolve Adaptively in Humans”, Science vol. 309, issue 5741, pp. 1717-1720 (9/09/2005), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5741/1717 (accessed and saved 10/27/18).

[458] Patrick D. Evans et al., “Adaptive evolution of ASPM, a major determinant of cerebral cortical size in humans”, Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 13, issue 5, pp. 489-494 (3/01/2004), https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/13/5/489/575484 (accessed and saved 10/27/18).

[459] Simon E. Fisher et al., “Localisation of a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder”, Nature Genetics 18, 168-170 (2/01/1998), https://www.nature.com/articles/ng0298-168 (accessed and saved 10/27/18).

[460] M. C. King and A. C. Wilson, “Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees”, Science vol. 188, issue 4184, pp. 107-116 (4/11/1975), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/188/4184/107 (accessed and saved 10/07/18). 

[461] e.g. J. Lomax Boyd et al., “Human-Chimpanzee Differences in a FZD8 Enhancer Alter Cell-Cycle Dynamics in the Developing Neocortex”, Current Biology vol. 25, issue 6, pp. 772-779 (3/16/2015), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982215000731 (accessed and saved 10/07/18).

[462] Matyas F. Cserhati et al., “Motifome comparison between modern human, Neanderthal and Denisovan”, BMC Genomics 19:472 (6/18/2018), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006668/ (accessed and saved 10/27/18).

[463] Simon Neubauer, Jean-Jacques Hublin, and Philipp Gunz, “The evolution of modern human brain shape”, Science Advances vol. 4, no. 1, eaao5961 (1/24/2018), http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/1/eaao5961 (accessed and saved 10/27/18).

[464] Image from Bernard Hollander, Scientific Phrenology, Plate 35 facing p. 180, Grant Richards, publisher (London, 1902), public domain, cataloged at https://wellcomecollection.org/works/ckc2hcvt (CC BY 4.0) (accessed, saved, and archived 12/08/19).

[465] Herb Terrace et al., “Can an ape create a sentence?” Science 206(4421):891-902 (Nov., 1979), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/206/4421/891 (accessed and saved 1/08/20).

[466] Curtis Marean et al., “Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene”, Nature 449:905-908 (10/18/2007), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature06204 (accessed and saved 10/21/18).

[467] Charles Perreault and Sarah Mathew, “Dating the origin of language using phonemic diversity”, PLoS One 7(4): e35289 (4/27/2012), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3338724/ (accessed and saved 12/16/18).

[468] Nicholas Wade, Before the Dawn, Penguin Press (Kindle eBook version, 2006) location 4076

[469] Lera Boroditsky, “How language shapes the way we think”, TED (November, 2017), https://www.ted.com/talks/lera_boroditsky_how_language_shapes_the_way_we_think?language=en (accessed 10/14/18).

[470] Noam Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, MIT Press (1965).       

[471] Vyvyan Evans, “Real talk”, Aeon (12/04/14), https://aeon.co/essays/the-evidence-is-in-there-is-no-language-instinct (accessed and saved 10/14/18).

[472] Jerry A. Fodor, The Language of Thought, Harvard University Press (1975).

[473] Cognitive maps research is an outgrowth of Roger Shepard and Susan Chipman, “Second-order Isomorphism of Internal Representations: Shapes of States”, Cognitive Psychology 1, pp. 1-17 (1970), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010028570900022 (paysite; abstract accessed and saved 12/17/19).

[474] Warren S. McCulloch and Walter H. Pitts, “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity”, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, vol. 5, pp. 115-133 (1943), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02478259   (accessed and saved 12/17/19).

[475] Marc D. Hauser, Noam Chomsky, and W. Tecumseh Fitch, “The Faculty of Language: What is it, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve?” Science 298 (5598): 1569-79 (11/22/2002), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12446899 (accessed and saved 10/28/18).

[476] Michael C. Corballis, The Recursive Mind, Princeton University Press (Kindle eBook version, 2011), location 92.

[477] William A. Foley, “The Languages of New Guinea”, Annu. Rev. Anthropol. vol. 29, pp. 357-404 (October, 2000), at 358.  https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.357 (accessed and saved 10/28/18).

[478] This hypothesis was proposed by Charles Darwin in Ch. 13 of On the Origin of Species (1859).  Free copy at http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-13/#languages ; search for the phrase “perfect pedigree”.  Corroboration recently provided by Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Eric Minch, and J. L. Mountain, “Coevolution of genes and languages revisited”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89(12):5620-5624 (6/15/1992), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC49344/ (accessed and saved 10/28/18).

[479] W.D. Strong, “North American Indian Traditions Suggesting a Knowledge of the Mammoth”, American Anthropologist 36(1):81-88 (Jan-Mar, 1934), https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1525/aa.1934.36.1.02a00060 (accessed and saved 10/28/18).

[480] Roger Echo-Hawk, “Forging a New Ancient History for Native America”, Ch. 7 of Native Americans and Archaeologists, Nina Swindler et al., eds., AltaMira Press (London, 1997), https://www.unl.edu/rhames/courses/current/readings/hawk.pdf (accessed and saved 10/28/18). 

[481] Sally McBrearty and Alison S. Brooks, “The revolution that wasn’t:  a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior”, Journal of Human Evolution 39(5):453-563 at 492 (Nov., 2000),  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248400904354 (accessed and saved 10/28/18).

[482] Sally McBrearty, “The Middle Pleistocene of east Africa”, Ch. 7 of Human roots: Africa and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene, Kate Robson-Brown and Lawrence Barham, eds., University of Bristol (2001), https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/44f7/6e4e1a75856ba2a5a603f9d85c9cd716fd4b.pdf (accessed and saved 11/04/18).

[483] Marian Vanhaeren et al., “Middle Paleolithic Shell Beads in Israel and Algeria”, Science 312(5781):1785-1788 (6/23/2006), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/312/5781/1785/tab-pdf (accessed and saved 11/03/18).

[484] Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser, and Mark Stoneking, “Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing”, Current Biology vol. 13, issue 16, pp. 1414-1417 (8/19/2003), https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(03)00507-4 (accessed and saved 11/04/18).

[485] Alison Brooks et al., “Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age”, Science 360(6384):90-94 (4/06/2018), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6384/90.full (accessed and saved 12/17/19).

[486] Christopher J. Norton and Jennie J.H. Jin, “The Evolution of Modern Human Behavior in East Asia: Current Perspectives”, Evolutionary Anthropology 18:247-260 at 251 (12/22/2009), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/evan.20235 (accessed and saved 10/31/18).

[487] Sue O’Connor, Rintaro Ono, and Chris Clarkson, “Pelagic Fishing at 42,000 Years Before the Present and the Maritime Skills of Modern Humans”, Science 334(6059):1117-21 (11/25/2011), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/334/6059/1117 (accessed and saved 11/05/18).

[488] Dennis O’Neil, “Early Modern Human Culture”, Palomar College (1999 – 2013), https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/homo2/mod_homo_5.htm (accessed and saved 11/05/18, archived 12/28/19).

[489] Paul Mellars, “The Impossible Coincidence. A Single-Species Model for the Origins of Modern Human Behavior in Europe”, Evolutionary Anthropology 14:12-27 at 16 (1/25/2005), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/evan.20037 (accessed and saved 11/11/18).

[490] Christopher Henshilwood and Curtis W. Marean, “The Origin of Modern Human Behavior”, Current Anthropology vol. 44 no. 5, 627-651 at 632-633 (December, 2003),  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971366 (accessed and saved 11/11/18).

[491] Mellars (2015), op. cit.

[492] Richard G. Klein, The Human Career, 3ed, University of Chicago Press (2009) pp 643 – 659.

[493] McBrearty and Brooks (2000), op. cit.

[494] Robin Dunbar, “Co-Evolution of Neocortex Size, Group Size and Language in Humans”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16(4):681-694 (Dec., 1993), https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences/article/coevolution-of-neocortical-size-group-size-and-language-in-humans/4290FF4D7362511136B9A15A96E74FEF (accessed and saved 1/22/20).  Though the famous “Dunbar number” of about 150 was proposed with a grain of salt and has not been rigorously tested, it is found to be consistent with many typical foraging bands and maximal self-managing teams.

[495] Robert L. Kelly, The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers: The Foraging Spectrum, Cambridge University Press (4/15/2013).  Table 7-3 (pp. 179 – 184) shows the densities of numerous modern foraging tribes, which range from 0.002 to 26 persons / square km.  

[496] Kim R. Hill et al., “Hunter-Gatherer Inter-Band Interaction Rates:  Implications for Cumulative Culture”, PLOS/One 9(7):1 – 9 (7/21/2014), https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102806 (accessed and saved 8/31/21).

[497] Douglas W. Bird et al., “Variability in the organization and size of hunter-gatherer groups:  Foragers do not live in small-scale societies”, Journal of Human Evolution 131:96-108 (June 2019), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S004724841830157X?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 8/31/21).

[498] Serdar Kaya, “Outgroup Prejudice from an Evolutionary Perspective:  Survey Evidence from Europe”, Journal of International and Global Studies 7(1):16-31 (11/01/2015), https://digitalcommons.lindenwood.edu/jigs/vol7/iss1/2/  (accessed and saved 8/31/21).

[499] Stewart Guthrie et al., “A Cognitive Theory of Religion”, Current Anthropology 21(2):181-203 (Apr., 1980), https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/202429 (accessed and saved 12/11/19).

[500] The description of religion as an anthropomorphization of nature dates at least to David Hume, The Natural History of Religion (1757), full 1889 edition at https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/hume-the-natural-history-of-religion (accessed and archived 12/28/19).  Children exhibit an innate tendency to interpret natural phenomena as means toward preconceived, humanesque purposes.  See e.g. Deborah Kelemen, “The scope of teleological thinking”, Cognition 70(3):241-272, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027799000104?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 2/02/20).

[501] Roy Rappaport, Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1999), p. 1, https://zodml.org/sites/default/files/%5BRoy_A._Rappaport%5D_Ritual_and_Religion_in_the_Maki.pdf (accessed and saved 11/19/18).

[502] Nicholas Wade, The Faith Instinct, Penguin Press (Kindle ebook edition, 2009) locations 197 – 198.

[503] Deborah Kelemen, “Are Children ‘Intuitive Theists’?:  Reasoning About Purpose and Design in Nature”, Psychological Science 15(5):295-301 (5/01/2004), https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00672.x (accessed and saved 12/28/19).

[504] Charles G. Lord, Lee Ross, and Mark R. Lepper, “Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization:  The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(11):2098-2109 (1979), https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0022-3514.37.11.2098 (accessed and saved 12/07/19).

[505] Leon Festinger, Henry W. Riecken, and Stanley Schachter, When prophecy fails, University of Minnesota Press (Minneapolis, 1956) presents a dramatic modern case study of an unfalsifiable religious belief.

[506] William James, “Lectures XVI – XVII: Mysticism” (1902), The Varieties of Religious Experience, Longmans, Green, & Co. (London, 1917), http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/621 (accessed and saved 12/08/18).

[507] Stephen G. Waxman and Norman Geschwind, “The Interictal Behavior Syndrome of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy”, Arch Gen Psychiatry 32(12):1580-1586 (December, 1975), https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/491470 (paysite; abstract accessed 11/20/18).

[508] Michael A. Persinger, “Enhanced incidence of ‘the sensed presence’ in people who have learned to meditate: support for the right hemispheric intrusion hypothesis”, Perceptual and Motor Skills 75 (3 Pt 2):1308-10 (December, 1992), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1484802 (accessed and saved 11/20/18).

[509] Andrew Newberg, Gene d’Aquili, and Vince Rause, Why God Won’t Go Away, Ballantine Books (2001) (not peer reviewed).

[510] Hervey C. Peoples, Pavel Duda, and Frank W. Marlowe, “Hunter-Gatherers and the Origins of Religion”, Human Nature 27:261-282 (5/06/2016), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12110-016-9260-0 (accessed and saved 1/24/21).  

[511] John Matthews, The Shamanism Bible, Godsfield (London, 2013).

[512] Tylor op. cit. at 121 ff and 438 ff.

[513] Matthews op. cit. at location 1651, “Shamanism and Illness”.

[514] Erella Hovers et al., “An Early Case of Color Symbolism: Ochre Use by Modern Humans in Qafzeh Cave”, Current Anthropology 44(4):491-522 (August, 2003), https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/12211574 (accessed and saved 12/01/18).

[515] Peoples, Duda, and Marlowe, op. cit.  See e.g. Fig. 3, p. 271.

[516] Jamie Hampson, “Discovering Southern African Rock Art”, Rice University, http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~raar/RegionsSAarticle.html (accessed and saved 12/03/18, archived 12/29/19).

[517] Erika Bourguignon, Religion, Altered States of Consciousness, and Social Change, Ohio State University Press (1973), as summarized by Elisa Guerra-Doce, “Psychoactive Substances in Prehistoric Times: Examining the Archaeological Evidence”, Time and Mind 8:1, 91-112 at 92 (1/02/2015), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1751696X.2014.993244 (accessed and saved 12/02/18).

[518] Helen Phillips and Graham Lawton, “The intoxication instinct”, New Scientist (11/10/2004), https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18424735-700-the-intoxication-instinct/ (accessed and saved 12/09/18).

[519] Neanderthal model:  Neanderthal Museum, Mettmann, Germany.  CC BY-SA 4.0 license, https://de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Homo_sapiens_neanderthalensis_(Fundort_Gibraltar).jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 7/17/21).

[520] Early H. sapiens model from Neanderthal Museum, CC BY-SA 4.0 license, https://www.neanderthal.de/de/urmenschen.html (accessed, saved, and archived 7/17/21). 

[521] Point photograph by Vincent Mourre / Inrap, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blombos_point_white.JPG (accessed and saved 11/24/19, archived 12/29/19).

[522] Man with tailored clothing from Neanderthal Museum, CC BY-SA 4.0 license, https://www.neanderthal.de/de/urmenschen.html (accessed, saved, and archived 7/17/21).  

[523] Blade photograph by Archaeodontosaurus, CC BY 4.0 license, https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Pointe_de_la_gravette_MHNT_PRE_2009.0.231.1_(2).jpg (accessed and saved 11/25/19, archived 12/29/19).

[524] Flute photograph by José-Manuel Benito Álvarez, CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flauta_paleol%C3%ADtica.jpg (accessed and saved 12/07/19, archived 12/29/19).

[525] Handprint photograph by Cahyo Ramadhani, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hands_in_Pettakere_Cave_DYK_crop.jpg (accessed and saved 12/07/19, archived 12/29/19).

[526] Photo of rhino art public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rhinos_Chauvet_Cave.jpg (accessed and saved 12/07/19, archived 12/29/19).

[527] Lion man photograph by Dagmar Hollmann, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Loewenmensch1.jpg (accessed and saved 12/15/2018, archived 12/29/19).

Chapter 4 Citations

[528] Hourglass image same as other chapters. Pyramid image by Kim Heimbuch, https://pixabay.com/vectors/pyramids-egypt-egyptian-desert-1496253/. Camel caravan image by Gordon Johnson, https://pixabay.com/vectors/camels-caravan-silhouette-animals-5059946/.  Pyramid and camels Pixabay License (both accessed, saved, and archived 10/04/20).  Eye of Horus image by Doreen Sawitza, https://pixabay.com/vectors/eye-of-horus-egypt-antiquity-2637716/  (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Scarab image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/scarab-bug-wings-ank-eye-horus-160646/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Necklace image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/chain-gold-jewelry-necklace-links-25487/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.    

[529] Americas image by Dsndrn-Videolar, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/map-america-usa-north-geography-715372/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Native American by OpenClipArt, https://creazilla.com/nodes/7488-artistic-image-of-native-american-clipart (accessed, saved, and archived 10/04/20). Family tree image by Silviu Ojog, https://thenounproject.com/icon/bloodline-2895329/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Corn image by josemairing, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/corn-field-agriculture-plant-crop-1706911/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Wagon image by ArtsyBeeKids, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/wagon-ox-wheels-explore-pilgrim-5681386/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21).  Priest and temple image by Venita Oberholster, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/aztec-mayan-temple-architecture-5619850/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/17/21). Timeline / composite image by Scot Fagerland.    

[530] George Frideric Handel, “The Messiah”, adapted from Psalms 2:1.

[531] Aixue Hu et al., “Influence of Bering Strait flow and North Atlantic circulation on glacial sea-level changes”, Nature Geoscience 3, 118 – 121 (1/10/2010), http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v3/n2/full/ngeo729.html (accessed and saved 1/18/20).

[532] Ned Rozell, “Why was interior Alaska green during the last ice age?” University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, 9/25/2014, http://www.gi.alaska.edu/alaska-science-forum/why-was-interior-alaska-green-during-last-ice-age (accessed and saved 7/02/17, archived 1/18/20).

[533] Sharon Levy, Once and Future Giants, Oxford University Press (2011), p. 15.

[534] Craig D. Allen, Julio L. Betancourt, and Thomas W. Swetnam, “Land Use History of North America (LUHNA): The Paleobotanical Record”, USGS (12/09/2016), https://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/impacts/biology/paleobotany/  (accessed, saved, and archived 12/20/20).

[535] David Meltzer, First Peoples in a New World:  Colonizing Ice Age America, University of California Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2009),  location 1205.

[536] Pat Middleton et al., “Glaciers Left Their Mark on the Mississippi River” (c. 1997), http://greatriver.com/Ice_Age/glacier.htm (accessed and saved 7/09/2017, archived 1/18/20).

[537] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “The Younger Dryas” (c. 2016), https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/abrupt-climate-change/The%20Younger%20Dryas (accessed and saved 7/09/2017).

[538] European Science Foundation, “Big freeze plunged Europe into ice age in months”, Science Daily (11/30/2009), https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091130112421.htm (accessed, saved, and archived 1/18/20).

[539] R.B. Alley et al., “Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Dryas event”, Nature 362, 527 – 529 (4/08/1993), https://www.nature.com/articles/362527a0 (accessed and saved 1/18/20).

[540] Wallace Broecker, “Was the Younger Dryas Triggered by a Flood?” Science 312(5777):1146-1148 at 1147 (5/26/2006), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/312/5777/1146/tab-figures-data (accessed and saved 7/09/2017).

[541] Owen Gaffney and Will Steffen, “The Anthropocene equation”, The Anthropocene Review, Vol. 4, Issue 1 (2/10/2017), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2053019616688022 (official pay site), https://www.slideshare.net/owengaffney/the-anthropocene-equation-2017-gaffney-steffen (free low-res copy posted by author, accessed and saved 7/09/2017, archived 1/18/20). 

[542] Lauriane Bourgeon, Ariane Burke, and Thomas Higham, “Earliest Human Presence in North America Dated to the Last Glacial Maximum: New Radiocarbon Dates from Bluefish Caves, Canada”, PLoS ONE 12(1): e0169486 (01/06/2017), https:doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169486 (accessed and saved 7/16/2017).

[543] Mikkel Pedersen et al., “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor”, Nature 537, 45-49 (9/01/2016), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v537/n7618/full/nature19085.html (abstract accessed and saved 7/23/2017). 

[544] Jon M. Erlandson et al., “Paleoindian seafaring, maritime technologies, and coastal foraging on California’s Channel Islands”, Science Vol 331, issue 6021, pp. 1181-1185 (3/04/2011), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/331/6021/1181.long (accessed and saved 1/19/20).

[545] Arturo Gonzalez et al., “The Arrival of Humans on the Yucatan Peninsula: Evidence from Submerged Caves in the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico”, Current Research in the Pleistocene vol. 25, 2008, Special Report pp. 1 – 24, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310750546_The_arrival_of_humans_on_the_Yucatan_Peninsula_Evidence_from_submerged_caves_in_the_state_of_Quintana_Roo_Mexico (accessed and saved 1/19/20).

[546] This was the hypothesis of Paul Martin, who compiled a lifelong summary of his research as Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America, University of California Press (2005).  Most experts believe that human presence contributed to the mass extinction, but that overhunting alone could not have killed so many animals so quickly.   

[547] David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here, Pantheon Books (Kindle eBook edition, 2018), locations 1271 – 1280.

[548] Morten Rasmussen et al., “The genome of a late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana”, Nature 506, 225-229 (2/13/2014), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4878442/ (accessed and saved 7/16/17). 

[549] Tom D. Dillehay et al., “New Archaeological Evidence for an Early Human Presence at Monte Verde, Chile”, PLOS ONE (11/18/2015), http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141923 (accessed and saved 7/16/2017).

[550] Rachel Caspari and Sang-Hee Lee, “Older age becomes common late in human evolution”, PNAS vol. 101, no. 30 (July 27, 2004), https://www.pnas.org/content/101/30/10895 (accessed and saved 7/23/2017).  This paper describes a sudden increase in longevity in the “early Upper Paleolithic.”  In a follow-up article, Caspari specified that the Paleolithic sample was 20 – 30 TYO and that “grandparents … first became common around 30,000 years ago.”  “The Evolution of Grandparents”, Scientific American 22(1):38-43 (Dec., 2012), https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-evolution-of-grandparents-2012-12-07/ (accessed and saved 1/19/20).

[551] Rachel Caspari and Sang-Hee Lee, “Is Human Longevity a Consequence of Cultural Change or Modern Biology?” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129:512-517 (2006), http://faculty.ucr.edu/~shlee/Publications/06%20OY%20W%20As%20(AJPA).pdf (accessed and saved 7/23/2017).

[552] Kristen Hawkes et al., “Hadza Women’s Time Allocation, Offspring Provisioning, and the Evolution of Long Postmenopausal Life Spans”, Current Anthropology vol. 38 no. 4 (August – October 1997), 551-577, https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/204646 (accessed and saved 1/20/20).

[553] Mirkka Lahdenperä et al., “Fitness benefits of prolonged post-reproductive lifespan in women”, Nature vol. 428 (3/11/2004) 178 – 181, https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02367 (accessed and saved 1/20/20).

[554] Nicholas Wade, Before the Dawn:  Recovering the Lost History of Our Ancestors, Penguin Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2006), location 2234.

[555] Ibid. at location 2264.

[556] Douglas Rohde, “Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans”, Nature 431:562-566 (9/30/2004), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02842 (accessed and saved 1/20/20).  Supplement at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/48ac/fefc93b65bc7313ce072be946ad6132a33bc.pdf (accessed, saved, and archived 1/20/20).  Rohde’s computer model indicates that humanity’s identical ancestry point could have occurred 5 – 15 TYA.  Bearing in mind the realities of American isolation, it would have occurred at the earlier end of this range. 

[557] The Hebrew bible described three human races.  18th century German historians invented the five-color system “white, black, yellow, red, brown.”  Even today, the United States census has five racial categories, corresponding roughly to the continents. 

[558] Image by Meganbeckett27, CC BY-SA 3.0,  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Colours_of_the_visible_light_spectrum.png  (accessed and saved 12/06/20).

[559] David Reich, Who We Are and How We Got Here, Pantheon Books (2018) maps out the details of this churning racial spectrum, an overview of 21st-century ancient-DNA genomics.  The terms “racial spectrum” and “3D spectrum” are my own.

[560] Genesis 1:26, King James Bible

[561] George Armelagos, “Brain Evolution, the Determinates of Food Choice, and the Omnivore’s Dilemma”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition vol 54, issue 10, pp. 1330 – 1341 (2/24/2014), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2011.635817 (accessed and saved 1/20/20).

[562] Kyle Chamberlain, “The Domestication Spectrum: How Our Relationships with Plants and Animals Define Our Existence”, Permaculture Research Institute, 3/04/2010, https://permaculturenews.org/2010/03/04/the-domestication-spectrum-how-our-relationships-with-plants-and-animals-define-our-existence/ (accessed and saved 8/13/2017, archived 1/20/20).  Non-academic; a good plain-English read.

[563] Claudio Ottoni et al., “The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world”, Nature Ecology & Evolution 1, article no. 0139 (2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0139 (accessed and saved 8/5/17).

[564] Fertile Crescent map by NormanEinstein, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fertile_Crescent_map.png (accessed and archived 7/10/22).

[565] Yoshihiro Matsuoka et al., “A single domestication for maize shown by multilocus microsatellite genotyping”, PNAS vol. 99 no. 9 (4/30/2002),  http://www.pnas.org/content/99/9/6080.long (accessed and saved 8/05/17). 

[566] Donald Ugent, Shelia Pozorski, and Thomas Pozorski, “Archaeological potato tuber remains from the Casma Valley of Peru”, Economic Botany 36:182-192 (Apr., 1982), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02858715 (accessed 1/20/20).

[567] Christopher Seddon, Humans: from the beginning, Glanville Publications (2014), p. 226.

[568] This is one of the central theses in Jared Diamond’s popular-science account Guns, Germs, and Steel, W.W. Norton, 1997.

[569] Elisa Guerra-Doce, “Psychoactive Substances in Prehistoric Times: Examining the Archaeological Evidence”, Time and Mind 8(1):91-112 (1/02/2015), https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1751696X.2014.993244 (accessed and saved 1/20/20). 

[570] Ferran Antolin and Ramon Buxo, “Chasing the traces of diffusion of agriculture during the early Neolithic in the western Mediterranean coast”, Rubricatum: revista del Museu de Gavà [en línia], 2012, Núm. 5 , pp. 95-102. http://www.raco.cat/index.php/Rubricatum/article/view/269300/356849 (accessed and saved 8/13/2017).

[571] Bakel et al., “The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa”, Genome Biology 2011, 12:R102, https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-r102 (accessed and saved 8/13/2017).

[572] Alfred Lucas and J. Harris, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries, Dover Publications (1926, 4ed 2012), p. 41 (accessed and saved 8/27/2017).

[573] Miljana Radivojevic et al., “On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe”, Journal of Archaeological Science 37(11):2775-87 (Nov., 2010), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440310001986 (accessed and saved 8/27/17).

[574] Aidan Cockburn, “Where did our infectious diseases come from?” CIBA Foundation Symposium no. 49 (Wiley, 1977), p. 111 (accessed and saved 8/27/2017).  For a more detailed smallpox study, see Yu Li et al., “On the origin of smallpox: Correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records”, PNAS 104(40):15787-92 (8/15/2007), http://www.pnas.org/content/104/40/15787.full (accessed and saved 8/27/2017).

[575] Nicolau Barquet and Pere Domingo, “Smallpox: the triumph over the most terrible of the ministers of death”, Annals of Internal Medicine 127:635-42 (10/15/1997), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9341063 (accessed and saved 1/23/20).

[576] The estimate of 300 – 500 million deaths in the 20th century is commonly quoted, though I have not yet traced this figure to its source.

[577] America: Lois Magner, “The Impact of European Diseases on Native Americans”, Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery (2001).  http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/impact-european-diseases-native-americans (accessed and saved 8/27/2017, archived 1/23/20). 

Australia: Judy Campbell, “Invisible Invaders: Smallpox and Other Diseases in Aboriginal Australia, 1780 – 1880”, Melbourne University Press (Carlton, 2007). 

[578] National Center for History in the Schools, “Key Theme Four: Haves and Have-Nots”, http://worldhistoryforusall.ss.ucla.edu/themes/keytheme4.php (accessed and saved 9/10/2017, archived 1/23/20).

[579] Robert Wright, “The Age of Chiefdoms”, Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny (Pantheon Books, 2000), Chapter 7, https://web.archive.org/web/20190401141650/http://www.nonzero.org/chap7.htm (accessed and saved 1/23/20).

[580] Kent Flannery and Joyce Marcus, The Creation of Inequality:  How Our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire , Harvard University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2012).  Flannery and Marcus use the phrase “We were here first” six times in this book, and “senior lineage” seven times. 

[581] Flannery and Marcus cite numerous examples of tribes or chiefdoms revising their creation stories to justify changing social relations.  One such example is taken from M.J. Meggitt, Desert People:  A Study of the Walbiri Aborigines of Central Australia (Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1962) wherein the Walbiri creation myth explained the godly source of “sections”, a sociological structure that they had only been using since 1850. 

[582] Examples are given by Brij Lal and Kate Fortune in The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia, Vol. 1 , University of Hawaii Press (2000), p. 135. https://books.google.com/books?id=T5pPpJl8E5wC&pg=PA135#v=onepage&q&f=false  (Accessed and saved 1/23/20).

[583] Irving Goldman, Ancient Polynesian Society, University of Chicago Press (1970).

[584]   Colin Renfrew and Peter Bellwood, editors, Examining the Farming / Language Dispersal Hypothesis, Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (2002). Summarized by Jared Diamond and Peter Bellwood, “Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions”, Science 300(5619):597-603 (4/25/2003), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/300/5619/597.long (accessed and saved 9/23/2017).

[585] Jared Diamond and Peter Bellwood, “Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions”, Science 300(5619):597-603 (4/25/2003), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/300/5619/597.long (accessed and saved 9/23/2017).

[586]   UC Berkeley STEDT team, “The Sino-Tibetan Language Family”, Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus (c. 2017), https://stedt.berkeley.edu/about-st#homeland (accessed and saved 12/17/2017, archived 1/24/20).

[587] E. N. Anderson, Food and Environment in Early and Medieval China, University of Pennsylvania Press (2014), p. 22, https://books.google.com/books?id=LJRuBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA22 (accessed and saved 9/24/2017).

[588] Frederick J. Newmeyer, “The History of Modern Linguistics”, Linguistic Society of America (2012),     https://www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/history-modern-linguistics (accessed and saved 9/24/2017).

[589] Native speaker statistics:  Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig (eds.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 20ed, SIL International (Dallas, 2017),  https://www.ethnologue.com/statistics/size (accessed and saved 9/30/2017).  Second-language statistics:  Apparently also from Ethnologue (a pay site), summarized on Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_total_number_of_speakers (accessed and saved 9/30/2017, archived 1/24/20).  

[590] August Schleicher (1821 – 1868), summarized by J.P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology, and Myth, Thames and Hudson (London, 1989), pp. 14 – 16.

[591] Marija Gimbutas, The Prehistory of Eastern Europe. Part I: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic Area, Peabody Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1956).  As summarized and updated by David Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press (Kindle ebook edition, 2007). 

[592] Wolfgang Haak et al., “Massive Migration from the Steppe Was a Source for Indo-European Languages in Europe”, Nature 522:207-11 (3/02/2015), https://www.nature.com/articles/nature14317 (accessed and saved 1/12/20).

[593] Mallory (1989) and Anthony (2007) both discuss these points.

[594] PIE map by Joe Roe, CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Indo-European_steppe_homeland_map.svg (accessed and archived 6/27/22).

[595] Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language, Princeton University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2007), location 6159 (Ch. 14 conclusion).

[596] Alan Outram et al., “The Earliest Horse Harnessing and Milking”, Science 323(5919):1332-1335 (3/06/2009), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/323/5919/1332 (accessed and saved 1/24/20).

[597] J.P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames & Hudson (London, 1989), pp. 137 – 138.

[598] Max Roser, “Ethnographic and Archaeological Evidence on Violent Deaths”, Our World in Data (2013), https://ourworldindata.org/ethnographic-and-archaeological-evidence-on-violent-deaths (accessed, saved, and archived 12/12/20).

[599] Christopher Boehm, “Retaliatory Violence in Human Prehistory”, The British Journal of Criminology 51(3):518-534 (May, 2011), https://www.jstor.org/stable/23640324?seq=1 (abstract accessed 12/13/20).

[600] Charles Spencer, “Territorial expansion and primary state formation”, PNAS vol. 107 no. 16 (4/20/2010), pp. 7119-7126, http://www.pnas.org/content/107/16/7119.full (accessed and saved 10/04/2017).

[601] The field of multi-level selection, or competition at the group level, is traced at least to Richard D. Alexander, The Biology of Moral Systems (Routledge, 1987), https://www.amazon.com/Biology-Systems-Evolutionary-Foundations-Behavior/dp/0202011747 .  It is often justified by the statistical Price Equation.  As a caveat, the whole principle of group selection is highly controversial.  However, that resistance comes mostly from biologists, who do not incorporate group-vs-group competition into their models. I find it plausible if not compelling that, when groups must cooperate to compete, there is a non-genetic evolutionary pressure toward intra-group cooperation.

[602] Emil Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912).  Durkheim described religion as “a system of ideas by means of which individuals imagine the society of which they are members.”  1995 translation by Karen Fields, https://www.amazon.com/Elementary-Forms-Religious-Life/dp/0029079373 , p. 227. 

[603] Richard Sosis, “Religious Behaviors, Badges, and Bans:  Signaling Theory and the Evolution of Religion” (2006).  Chapter 4 (pp. 61 – 86) of P. McNamara (Ed.), Psychology, religion, and spirituality. Where God and Science meet: How brain and evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion (Vol. 1): Evolution, genes, and the religious brain.  Praeger Publishers.  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi= (accessed and saved 5/23/21).  See pp. 10 – 11 of the isolated PDF or p. 66 – 67 in the book.

[604] Such observations are traceable at least to Emil Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912).  In fact, Durkheim wrote that, even before gods, rituals and totems symbolized the collective and were held as sacred.   

[605] Quentin Atkinson and Pierrick Bourrat, “Beliefs about God, the afterlife and morality support the role of supernatural policing in human cooperation”, Evolution and Human Behavior 32(1):41-49 (Jan., 2011), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1090513810000899?via%3Dihub (accessed and saved 1/22/20).

[606] Joseph Watts et al., “Broad supernatural punishment but not moralizing high gods precede the evolution of political complexity in Austronesia”, Proc. R. Soc. B. 282(1804): 20142556 (4/07/2015), http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1804/20142556 (accessed and saved 9/17/2017).

[607] Franz Roes and Michael Raymond, “Belief in moralizing gods”, Evolution and Human Behavior 24(2):126-135 (Mar., 2003), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1090513802001344?via%3Dihub (paywall; abstract accessed 1/25/20).  Summarized in Franz Roes, “Moralizing Gods and the Arms-Race Hypothesis of Human Society Growth”, The Open Social Science Journal, 2009(2):70-73 (7/05/2009), https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOSSCIJ-2-70 (accessed and saved 1/25/20).

[608] Exodus 20:1 – 12.  The commandments are not numbered 1 – 10 in the bible, so there are different versions of the numbering. 

[609] Exodus 20:13 – 16.

[610] Exodus 20:17.

[611] Deuteronomy 20:10-20, Joshua 6:16-21, Numbers 21:2-3, Psalm 106:34.

[612] Samuel Johnson defined religion in part by “expectation of future rewards and punishments.” A Dictionary of the English Language (1806), p. 620, https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=z3kKAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb_hover&pg=GBS.PA606

[613] Nicholas Wade, The Faith Instinct, Penguin Press (Kindle ebook edition, 2009) location 712.

[614] The words “sacred”, “sacrifice”, and “sacerdotal” (priestly) have the same root. 

[615] Barry J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization, 2nd edition, Taylor and Francis (2005), Part II.

[616] Herodotus, The Histories Book 2 Chapters 86-88.  English translation by Henry Cary, Herodotus: A New and Literal Version, Harper & Brothers (New York, 1859), pp. 126 – 127, https://archive.org/stream/herodotusnewlite00hero#page/126/mode/2up (accessed and saved 11/07/2017). 

[617] Archibald H. Sayce, Lectures on the Origins and Growth of Religion as Illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, AMS Press (New York, 1887) pp. 237-241, https://archive.org/stream/LecturesOnTheOriginAnd#page/n247/mode/2up (accessed and saved 11/07/2017).

[618] “The Myth of Adapa”, -4th millennium Akkadian myth, translated by R.W. Rogers, Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament, Oxford University Press (London, 1912)  pp. 67-76, https://archive.org/stream/cuneiformparalle00rogerich#page/66/mode/2up (accessed and saved 11/07/2017).

[619] “The Babylonian Flood Story”, translated by R.W. Rogers, Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament, Oxford University Press (London, 1912)  pp. 90 – 102, https://archive.org/stream/cuneiformparalle00rogerich#page/90/mode/2up (accessed and saved 11/07/2017).

[620] Similar to the infancy of Emperor Sargon of Akkadia.  Analyzed by Otto Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero (1914), Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company (New York, 1914), translated by F. Robbins and Smith Ely Jelliffe, http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/mbh/index.htm .  See specifically Sargon, https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/mbh/mbh02.htm, and Moses, https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/mbh/mbh03.htm (both accessed, saved, and archived 1/25/20).

[621] “Man and His God”, Sumerian, c. -2000.  Translation with original transliteration and sources at http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/section5/tr524.htm (accessed and saved 11/07/2017, archived 1/25/20). 

[622] Li Liu and Hong Xu, “Rethinking Erlitou: legend, history and Chinese archaeology”, Antiquity 81(314):886-901 (12/01/2007), https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00095983 (accessed and saved 11/07/2017).

[623] Paul S. Ropp, China in World History, Oxford University Press (New York, 2010) p. 1.

[624] Asko Parpola, “A Dravidian solution to the Indus script problem”, lecture notes from World Classical Tamil Conference (6/25/2010), https://www.harappa.com/sites/default/files/pdf/Parpola-2010-Coimbatore.pdf (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20). 

[625] Charles C. Mann, “Unraveling Khipu’s Secrets”, Science 309:1008-9 (8/12/2005), https://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5737/1008 (accessed and saved 1/26/20).

[626] Jonathan Haas et al., “Power and the Emergence of Complex Polities in the Peruvian Preceramic”, Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 14(1):37-52 (Jan., 2004), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/ap3a.2004.14.037/abstract  (accessed and saved 11/07/2017).

[627] For a good gallery of Olmec art and artifacts, see Anirudh, “10 Interesting Facts On The Ancient Olmec Civilization” , https://learnodo-newtonic.com/olmec-facts (2/16/2018; accessed, saved, and archived 12/20/20).

[628] Miljana Radivojevic et al., “On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe”, Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2010) 2775-2787, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012 (accessed and saved 11/19/2017).

[629] Christopher Thornton et al., “On Pins and Needles: Tracing the Evolution of Copper-base Alloying at Tepe Yahya, Iran, via ICP-MS Analysis of Common-place Items”, Journal of Archaeological Science 29 (2002), 1451-1460, https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.2002.0809 (accessed and saved 11/19/2017).

[630] David Anthony as interviewed by Natalie Wolchover, “Why It Took So Long to Invent the Wheel”, Live Science 3/02/2012, https://www.livescience.com/18808-invention-wheel.html (accessed and saved 11/12/2017, archived 1/26/20). 

[631] Asko Parpola, “Formation of the Indo-European and Uralic (Finno-Ugric) language families in the light of archaeology: Revised and integrated ‘total’ correlations”, A Linguistic Map of Prehistoric Northern Europe, Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia, ed. By Riho Grünthal & Petri Kallio (Helsinki 2012), 119-184 at 125-127.  http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust266/sust266_parpola.pdf (accessed and saved 11/11/2017).

[632] Richard Bulliet, The Wheel: Inventions & Reinventions, Columbia University Press (New York, 2016), chapters 3 & 4.

[633] Eye image:  OpenClipart-Vectors, Pixabay license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/eye-green-eyes-iris-eyelid-149673/ .  Can image:  Public domain via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_can_solderless_seam.jpg .  Sea image:  Clker-Free-Vector-Images, Pixabay license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/waves-sea-water-tide-ocean-blue-311635/ .  Ewe image:  OpenClipArt, public domain, https://freesvg.org/lemmling-cartoon-sheep .  (All archived 6/27/22). 

[634] Carmen Rodriguez Martinez et al., “Oldest Writing in the New World”, Science vol. 313 Issue 5793, pp. 1610-1614 (9/15/2006), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/313/5793/1610 (accessed and saved 12/03/2017).

[635] Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Writing, Reaktion Books (Kindle eBook edition, 2001), location 413.

[636] Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Writing, Reaktion Books (Kindle eBook edition, 2001), location 2335.

[637] Cuneiform tablet # OIM A2513, in possession of the Oriental Institute Museum, Chicago, IL.  Translated and analyzed by Christopher Woods, “The Earliest Mesopotamian Writing”, in Visible Language, ed. Woods et al., Oriental Institute Museum Publications (2015), p. 39.  https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/oimp32.pdf  (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[638] Kent Flannery and Joyce Marcus, The Creation of Inequality, Harvard University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2012), pp. 59 – 60.

[639] Harpoon photo:  Muséum de Toulouse, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harpons_de_Fontal%C3%A9s_MHNT.PRE.2011.0.654.jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[640] Arrowheads photo:  Billwhittaker at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clovis_Rummells_Maske.jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[641] Axe photo:  Metropolitan Museum of Art, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%E7%A3%A8%E8%A3%BD%E7%9F%B3%E6%96%A7-Polished_Stone_Axe_(Masei_sekifu)_MET_LC-1975_268_265_001.jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[642] James M. Adovasio, Olga Soffer, and Bohuslav Klima, “Upper Palaeolithic fibre technology:  interlaced woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago”, Antiquity 70(269):526-534 (Sep., 1996), https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/antiquity/article/upper-palaeolithic-fibre-technology-interlaced-woven-finds-from-pavlov-i-czech-republic-c-26000-years-ago/CD78BC4A39E2DD6958ACA29BA1BA30DA (paywall, abstract accessed 1/26/20).  As summarized by Shanti Menon, “The Basket Age”, Discover (12/31/1995), https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/the-basket-age (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[643] Pottery photo:  Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Prehistoric_Painted_Pottery_Vessel_LACMA_M.76.174.156.jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[644] Mammoth hut photo:  Nandaro, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mammoth_House_(Replica).JPG (accessed and saved 1/26/20).

[645] Village reconstruction photo:  Wolfgang Sauber, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:MUFT_-_Catal_H%C3%B6y%C3%BCk_Modell.jpg (accessed and saved 1/26/20).

[646] Mustard image:  Liwnoc, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wild_Mustard_Plant_Selective_Breeding.svg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

[647] Stonehenge photo by Howard Walsh, Pixabay License, https://pixabay.com/photos/stonehenge-travel-tourist-england-4614639/ (accessed and saved 1/26/20).

[648] King Tut chariot photo by Carsten Frenzl, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Replica_of_Tutankhamun%E2%80%99s_chariot_(side_view).jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/16/20).

[649] Gilgamesh photo by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg), CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tablet_V_of_the_Epic_of_Gilgamesh.jpg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/26/20).

Chapter 3 Citations

[650] Hourglass image:  Same as other chapters. Taj Mahal image by Work2Survive, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Indian_temple.svg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/21/21). Turban image by Nina Garman, Pixabay commercial use license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/turban-mughal-indian-pakistani-5483562/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/21/21). Elephant image by Long Pyles, CC0, https://pixy.org/4656371/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/21/21). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[651] Hindu symbol image by WikimediaImages, Pixabay commercial license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/calligraphy-aum-om-hindu-symbol-884268/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/30/21). Crucifix image by RootOfAllLight, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crucifix.svg (accessed, saved, and archived 1/30/21).  Buddha image by ReSampled, Pixabay commercial license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/meditation-buddha-meditate-buddhism-3592516/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/30/21).  Islamic crescent by DonovanCrow, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Islamic-Symbol.png (accessed, saved, and archived 1/30/21).  Parthenon icon by Jason Dilworth, https://thenounproject.com/term/acropolis/174628/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/30/21).  Star of David by Zscout370, Public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Star_of_David.svg (accessed and saved 1/28/21).  Caesar image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, Pixabay commercial license, https://pixabay.com/vectors/man-person-roman-rome-education-156549/ (accessed, saved, and archived 1/30/21). Chinese architecture icon by https://pixabay.com/illustrations/pagoda-new-year-china-735491/ , free for commercial use (accessed, saved, and archived 1/31/21). Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[652] Stephen Howe, Empire: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2002), 38.

[653] Surprisingly few books discuss monarchs’ motivations in a rational way.  See Leo J. Blanken, Rational Empires: Institutional Incentives and Imperial Expansion (University of Chicago Press, 2012), and Philip T. Hoffman, Why Did Europe Conquer the World? (Princeton University Press, 2015).

[654] Douglas L.T. Rohde, Steve Olson, and Joseph T. Chang, “Modelling the recent common ancestry of all humans”, Nature vol. 431 pp. 562-566 (9/30/2004), http://www.stat.yale.edu/~jtc5/papers/CommonAncestors/NatureCommonAncestors-Article.pdf (accessed and saved 9/08/19).

[655] Howe, op. cit. at 14. 

[656] Conrad Hackett et al., “The Global Religious Landscape”, Pew Research Center (12/18/2012), http://www.pewforum.org/2012/12/18/global-religious-landscape-exec/ (accessed and saved 9/08/19, archived 10/13/19).

[657] Christopher W. Blackwell,  “The Development of Athenian Democracy”,  Demos:  Classical Athenian Democracy (1/24/2003), http://www.stoa.org/demos/article_democracy_development@page=all&greekEncoding=UnicodeC.html (accessed and saved 9/08/19, archived 10/13/19).

[658] Supported internally in the bible by such passages as Exodus 32:1-6, Jeremiah 2:28, and Ezekiel 8:9-16.  See also Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts, Oxford University Press (Amazon Kindle eBook edition, 2001), location 344.

[659] 1st – 2nd Commandments (Exodus 20:3-6).  See also Frank Eakin, The Religion and Culture of Israel: An Introduction to Old Testament Thought, Allyn & Bacon (1971), pp. 70, 107 – 108, and 263.  

[660] Genesis 15 : 1 – 21.  Accessed, saved, and archived 9/14/19 at BibleGateway.com, https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+15%3A1%E2%80%9321&version=niv .  BibleGateway.com offers hundreds of translations.

[661] Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, Simon and Schuster (2002).

[662] Richard Elliott Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible? Harper (1987).

[663] Finkelstein and Silberman, op. cit., Chapter 2.

[664] Richard Hooker, “The Jewish Temples:  After the Babylonian Exile”, The Hebrews: A Learning Module, Washington State University (1/17/1997), reprinted by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/after-the-babylonian-exile (accessed, saved, and archived 10/13/19). 

[665] Samuel George Frederick Brandon, Jesus and the Zealots: A Study of the Political Factor in Primitive Christianity, Manchester University Press, 1967, p. 330, https://books.google.com/books?id=tIC7AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA330#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed, saved, and archived 9/14/19).

[666] This thesis is fleshed out by Reza Aslan in Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth, Random House (2013), esp. pp. 120 – 121 and Ch. 12.

[667] Matthew 5:5

[668] None of the gospels except John, the last written, refers to Jesus as “God”.  Dom Henry Wansbrough, “What Did Mark Think of Jesus?” Tutorial Essays for Oxford BA in Theology, https://web.archive.org/web/20161129135401/http://users.ox.ac.uk/~sben0056/essays/marksviewofjesus.htm , paragraph 2 (c. 2012, accessed and saved 9/14/19).  See also Gustavo Vazquez Lozano, Jesus of Nazareth: The Historical Search for the Christian Messiah, 2016, Charles River Editors, eBook version, location 239, which shows the progression of describing Jesus from an earthly preacher in Mark (earliest gospel) to a divine figure in John (latest gospel).

[669] John 1:29

[670] Ralph F. Wilson, “The Lamb of God:  Basic Concepts of Sacrifice”, Jesus Walk (2020), http://www.jesuswalk.com/lamb/lamb_1basic.htm  (accessed, saved, and archived 10/02/20).

[671] Eusebius Pamphilus, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine (4th century), “# 107: Constantine’s Vision”, translated by Stephen Tomkins, https://www.christianhistoryinstitute.org/study/module/constantine/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/15/19).

[672] Map of India by Jeroen, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Indo-Gangetic_Plain.en.png (accessed and archived 7/10/22).

[673] Hans Wolfgang Schumann, The Historical Buddha, Penguin / Arkana books (German, 1982, translated by  M.O. Walshe, 1989), p. 192

[674] Schumann, ibid. at 33 and 79

[675] Yujrav Krishan, “Buddhism and the Caste System”, The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 9(1):71-83 (1986), https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:bzGUv731GvcJ:https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/jiabs/article/download/8676/2583  (accessed and saved 9/15/19, archived 10/13/19).

[676] Two well-known examples are Kings Bimbisara and Pasenadi.

[677] Richard W. Bulliet et al., “The Evolution of Hinduism”, The Earth and its Peoples: A Global History, Vol. I: to 1550, Cengage Learning (6th edition, 2013), pp. 175 – 176, https://books.google.com/books?id=vSu6CAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover (accessed and saved 9/15/19).  

[678] Schumann, op. cit. at 139 – 144

[679] 13th Edict of Ashoka (-3rd century, probably his own words), trans. Ven. S. Dhammika, Buddhist Publication Society (1993), https://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html (accessed, saved, and archived 9/15/19).

[680] J.F. Horrabin, “Areas to which Buddhist missions were sent” (map, 1961) appearing in Anuradha Seneviratna, ed., King Asoka and Buddhism, Buddhist Publication Society (Sri Lanka, 1994), http://www.urbandharma.org/pdf/king_asoka.pdf , PDF p. 249 (accessed and saved 9/15/19, archived 10/13/19).

[681] Charles Hucker, China to 1850: A Short History, Stanford University Press (1978) p. 33.

[682] China map by Yug, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_plain_5c._BC-en.svg (accessed and archived 6/28/22).

[683] Daniel K. Gardner, Confucianism: A Very Brief Introduction, Oxford University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2014), Location 461.

[684] Confucius, Analects, 12.2.  See e.g. Robert Eno, transl., The Analects of Confucius:  An Online Teaching Translation, p. 59, https://archive.org/details/AnalectsOfConfucius_201606/page/n73 (accessed and saved 9/22/19).

[685] Most of the facts in this paragraph are from Li Feng, Early China: A Social and Cultural History, Cambridge University Press (2013), Chapter 11.

[686] Gray L. Dorsey, Jurisculture Vol. 3: China, Transaction Publishers (New Brunswick, NJ, 1993), https://books.google.com/books?id=b_tA54IOeZAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false , pp. 131 – 132 (accessed and saved 9/22/19).

[687] Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian of China, (1st century BCE) translated by Burton Watson (1961, Columbia University Press), Han Dynasty Vol. 1, https://books.google.com/books?id=wDDLb8LjlNAC , pp. 226-227 (accessed and saved 9/22/19).

[688] Patricia Crone, “What do we actually know about Muhammad?” Open Democracy (6/10/2008), https://www.opendemocracy.net/faith-europe_islam/mohammed_3866.jsp (accessed and saved 9/04/16, archived 10/14/19).

[689] Karen Armstrong, A History of God, Ballantine Books (Kindle eBook edition, 1993), location 2850. 

[690] Damien Keown, Buddhism, A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2013), locations 1466 – 1476.

[691] Ian Johnson, “China’s Grand Canal”, National Geographic (May, 2013) https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2013/05/grand-canal/  (accessed and saved 9/22/19, archived 10/14/19).

[692] Paul S. Ropp, China in World History, Oxford University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2010), location 1115.

[693] Ropp, ibid. at location 1268

[694] Samuel Adshead, T’ang China: The Rise of the East in World History, Palgrave Macmillan (2004), pp. 85 – 86, saved 9/22/19.

[695] Paul S. Ropp, China in World History, Oxford University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2010), location 1684 – 1695

[696] Ropp, ibid. at 1707

[697] Whether measured in persons, square miles, or nations.  Jack Weatherford, Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, Broadway Books (2005), p. xviii, https://books.google.com/books?id=A8Y9B5uHQcAC&pg=PR18 (accessed and saved 9/22/19).

[698] Mongol Empire map by Ali Zifan, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mongol_Empire_(greatest_extent).svg (accessed and saved 9/18/16, archived 10/14/19).

[699] European map “Odoacer’s Kingdom of Italy in 480 AD” by Thomas Lessman, World History Maps (10/02/2008), CC BY-SA 3.0, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Odoacer_480ad.jpg (accessed and saved 10/05/16, archived 10/14/19).

[700] Robert Markus, The End of Ancient Christianity, Cambridge University Press (1991).  Markus describes the ascent of the Church as a form of “desecularization”, the opposite of the secularization of Europe that followed the Reformation.

[701] Kevin Madigan, Medieval Christianity: A New History, Yale University Press (2015), Chapters 2 – 4.

[702] Lynn Harry Nelson, “The Rise of Feudalism: 850 – 1000 AD”, Lectures in Medieval History, WWW Virtual Library (1990s), http://www.vlib.us/medieval/lectures/feudalism.html (accessed and saved 9/22/19, archived 10/14/19).

[703] Timothy Biel, The Age of Feudalism, Lucent Books (1994), p. 36.

[704] Bamber Gascoigne, “History of Feudalism”, History World (since 2001, ongoing), http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=eoa (accessed and saved 9/22/19, archived 10/14/19).

[705] Joseph R. Strayer, Feudalism, Krieger Publishing Company (1979).

[706] See e.g. Philippe de Beaumanoir, Coutomes de Beauvaisis (13th century French law treatise), trans. F.R.P. Akehurst, University of Pennsylvania Press (1992), https://books.google.com/books?id=x_mACgAAQBAJ&pg=PR4 (accessed 9/23/19).

[707] Paul Vinogradoff, Feudalism, Perennial Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2016), location 74.

[708] Joseph R. Strayer, On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State, Princeton University Press (1970).

[709] Mark Kurlansky, Salt: A World History, Penguin Books (USA, 2003), Ch. 2, https://books.google.com/books?id=GhpNc1YU6wsC&q=camel#v=onepage&q=camel&f=false (accessed and saved 9/29/19).

[710] Florence Lemoine, “Mansa Musa”, Lives and Legacies: An Encyclopedia of People who Changed the World: Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists, ed. David Del Testa, Oryx Press (2001), p. 116, https://books.google.com/books?id=vSwi2TYabS4C&pg=PA116#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed and saved 9/29/19, archived 10/15/19).

[711] al-Umari, Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar (1338), translated into English as “Pathways of Visions in the Realm of Metropolises” in Levitzion and Hopkins (eds.), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, Cambridge University Press (1981), pp. 269 – 273.  The cited excerpt is reprinted at http://www.bu.edu/africa/outreach/k_o_mali/ (accessed and saved 9/29/19).

[712] Ase Berit and Rolf Strandskogen, “Mansa Musa (Kankan Musa)”, Lifelines in World History Vol. 2: The Medieval World, Routledge (2015), p. 182, https://books.google.com/books?id=wHqsBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA182 (accessed and saved 9/29/19).

[713] Brian Warner, “The 25 Richest People Who Ever Lived – Inflation Adjusted”, Celebrity Net Worth (4/14/14), http://www.celebritynetworth.com/articles/entertainment-articles/25-richest-people-lived-inflation-adjusted/ (accessed and saved 9/29/19, archived 10/15/19).

[714] Patricia and Fredrick McCissack, The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa, Henry Holt and Company (1994, Kindle eBook edition 2016), locations 242 – 254.

[715] John Haywood, Atlas of Past Times, Borders Press (2003) p. 100.

[716] P. James Oliver, Mansa Musa and the Empire of Mali (Kindle eBook edition, 2013), p. 20. 

[717] Africa map by Jeff Israel and Monsieur Fou, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:African-civilizations-map-imperial.png (accessed and archived 6/28/22).

[718] Alexander Kent and Peter Britton, “Africa 1453 CE”, TimeMaps, https://www.timemaps.com/history/africa-1453ad/ (accessed and saved 9/29/19, archived 10/15/19).

[719] Bamber Gascoigne, The Maya, Aztecs, Incas and Conquistadors: a Brief Introduction, HistoryWorld Ltd (Kindle eBook edition, 2011), locations 60 – 75.

[720] Michael Coe,  “The Olmec heartland: evolution of ideology” in Robert J. Sharer and David C. Grove (ed), Regional Perspectives on the Olmec, Cambridge University Press (1989) p. 71.

[721] The editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Huitzilopochtli”, Encyclopedia Britannica (1998 – 2015), https://www.britannica.com/topic/Huitzilopochtli (accessed, saved, and archived 10/05/19).

[722] Gascoigne (2011), op. cit. at location 370.

[723] Barbara Mundy, “Water and the Aztec Landscape in the Valley of Mexico”, Mexicolore (3/24/12), http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/aztecs/home/water-in-valley-of-mexico (accessed and saved 10/16/16, archived 10/15/19).

[724] Staff writer, “Economy of the Inca Empire”, Boston University / Peru Cultural Society, http://www.discover-peru.org/inca-economy-society/ (accessed and saved 10/23/16, archived 10/15/19).

[725] James Newman, The Peopling of Africa, Yale University Press (1997), pp. 140 ff, https://books.google.com/books?id=pDjlC1ws158C&pg=140 (accessed and saved 10/05/19).

[726] Akosua Perbi, “Slavery and the Slave Trade in Pre-Colonial Africa”, 4/05/01, http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/slavery/perbi.pdf pp. 1 – 2 (accessed and saved 10/22/16, archived 10/16/19).

[727] Tunde Fatunde, “Scholars focus on the Arab trans-Saharan slave trade”, University World News, Issue 217 (4/13/12), http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20120413180645205 (accessed and saved 10/22/16, archived 10/16/19).

[728] LaDonna Brown, “Mysteries of the Mounds: The Abrupt Decline” (video), Chickasaw.TV, https://www.chickasaw.tv/history-timeline/video/mysteries-of-the-mounds-the-abrupt-decline (accessed 10/23/16, archived 10/16/19).

[729] Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., 500 Nations, Alfred E. Knopf publishers (New York, 1994), pp. 44 – 53.

[730] William Kornblum, Sociology in a Changing World, 9ed, Wadsworth Cengage Learning (2011), p. 165,  https://books.google.com/books?id=DtKcG6qoY5AC&pg=PA189 (accessed 1/04/17).

[731] Tom Lansford, “Banking”, Renaissance and Reformation, Vol. 1, p. 86, Marshall Cavendish publishers (New York, 2007), https://books.google.com/books?id=i6ZJlLHLPY8C&pg=PA86 (accessed and saved 10/05/19).

[732] Map of Italy by Flanker and Ultimate Destiny, public domain via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_Italy_(1494)-en.svg (accessed and archived 6/28/22).

[733] Garrett Mattingly, “Part Two:  The Italian Beginnings of Modern Diplomacy”, Renaissance Diplomacy, pp. 45 ff., Dover (written 1955, republished New York, 1988),  https://books.google.com/books?id=2-0cVoc_fmoC&pg=PA45 (accessed 10/05/19).  

[734] Martin Eisner, “In the Labyrinth of the Library: Petrarch’s Cicero, Dante’s Virgil, and the Historiography of the Renaissance”, Renaissance Quarterly, 67(3):755-790 (Fall 2014), https://doi.org/10.1086/678774 (accessed and saved 10/05/19).

[735] Tryntje Helfferich, The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History, Hackett Publishing (Kindle eBook edition, 2009), location 211.

[736] Matthew White, “Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century” (2012), http://necrometrics.com/pre1700a.htm (accessed and saved 12/01/16, archived 10/16/19).  These metrics are clearly rough estimates, but the tallies show that Europe never experienced anything close to the scale of the 30 Years War since the Roman Empire.

[737] Helfferich, op. cit. at location 240, supported by Documents 20 and 28 within the same book. 

[738] Helfferich, ibid. at locations 364 – 371, with citations to the original source documents translated by Helfferich in the same book.  

[739] Mark Greengrass, Christendom Destroyed: Europe 1517 – 1648, Penguin (2014).

[740] Kendall F. Haven, “Caravel (Sailing Ship)”, 100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time pp. 45 – 47, Libraries Unlimited (Westport, CT, 2006), https://books.google.com/books?id=0gBwjLTUzEMC&pg=PA45 (accessed and saved 10/06/19).

[741] Pope Nicholas V, “Dum diversas”, Bullarium patronatus Portugalliae regum in ecclesiis Africae …, vol. 1 pp. 22 – 23 (6/18/1452), https://books.google.com/books?id=6NDmAAAAMAAJ&ots=DKTfGli38J&pg=PA22 (accessed and saved 10/06/19).  Anonymous English translation, Unam sanctam Catholicam (2/05/2011) http://unamsanctamcatholicam.blogspot.de/2011/02/dum-diversas-english-translation.html (accessed and saved 10/06/19, archived 10/16/19).  

[742] Pope Nicholas V, Romanus Pontifex (1/08/1455), trans. William Bollan (1762), reprinted in Frances Gardiner Davenport, European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648, Carnegie Institution (1917), pp. 9 – 26, https://books.google.com/books?id=uLILAAAAIAAJ&vid=OCLC00855948&jtp=9   (accessed 11/20/16).

[743] Pope Alexander VI, Inter Caetera (5/04/1493), translated by Blair and Robertson in Philippine Islands (1903 – 1909), I. 103 – 105, reprinted in Frances Gardiner Davenport, ibid pp. 71 – 78, https://books.google.com/books?id=uLILAAAAIAAJ&vid=OCLC00855948&jtp=71  (accessed 11/20/16).

[744] It was called the encomienda system, and it is easy to find in encyclopedias and general-interest websites. 

[745] John H. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492 – 1830, Yale University Press (Kindle eBook version, 2006), location 621.

[746] John H. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America 1492 – 1830, Yale University Press (Kindle eBook edition, 2006), location 619.

[747] John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1800, 2nd ed., pp. 29 – 31, Cambridge University Press (New York, 1998), https://books.google.com/books?id=wdIhAwAAQBAJ (accessed and saved 10/06/19).

[748] See e.g. Philip T. Hoffman, Why Did Europe Conquer the World? Princeton University Press (2015).  Hoffman defends the thesis that Europe’s empowerment in the Renaissance was spurred by the continent’s unique form of military rivalries. 

[749] Michael Shenefelt and Heidi White, If A, Then B: How the World Discovered Logic, Columbia University Press (2013).  Chapters 1 and 2 give a unique discussion of how Aristotle’s formulation of logic was influenced by his environment.  Section 2.5 in particular discusses “The Separation of Logic from Rhetoric”.

[750] David Charles Lindberg, “Chapter 4:  Alhazen and the new intromission theory of vision”, Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, pp. 60 ff., University of Chicago Press (1976), https://books.google.com/books?id=-8A_auBvyFoC&pg=PA60#v=onepage&q&f=false (accessed 10/06/19).

[751] 20th century American philosopher Karl Popper defined science by falsifiable hypotheses.  Stephen Thornton, “Karl Popper” in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (ongoing since 11/13/1997), https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper/ (accessed and saved 12/11/16, archived 10/17/19).

[752] Dan Hardin, “All 281 Geocentric References of the Holy Bible”, Gateway Anabaptist Church (1/29/2014), http://www.gatewayanabaptistchurch.com/2014/01/29/all-281-geocentric-references-of-the-holy-bible/ (accessed, saved, and archived 10/12/19).

[753] Scientists on the Catholic church’s Index of Prohibited Books included Kepler, Galileo, Descartes, Francis Bacon, and Pascal.  For the Church’s arguments against Galileo, see Ernst Krause, “The Struggle Regarding the Position of the Earth”, The Open Court 14(8):449-474 esp. at 459 (August, 1900), http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1214&context=ocj (accessed, saved, and archived 10/12/19). 

[754] Ian Hacking, The Emergence of Probability, Cambridge University Press (2006), Chapter 5, “Signs”.  

[755] John Graunt, “Chap. VI:  Of the Sickliness, Healthfulness, and Fruitfulness of Seasons”,  Natural and Political Observations Made Upon the Bills of Mortality (1662, 5th edition London, 1676) p. 369, reprinted at https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Natural_and_Political_Observations_Made_upon_the_Bills_of_Mortality_(Graunt_1676)/Chapter_6 (accessed and saved 10/13/19).

Chapter 2 Citations

[756] Hourglass image same as Chapter 10 (notes 1 and 2).  Statue of Liberty image by ArtsyBeeKids, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/statue-of-liberty-symbol-america-5726333/ .  Scales image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/scale-balance-libra-justice-gold-306515/ .  Sword image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/sword-blade-weapons-weapon-steel-26500/ .  Blindfold image by Marek Polakovic, Creative Commons, https://thenounproject.com/search/?q=blindfolds&i=2523827 .  US flagpole image by SyedR, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/flag-of-usa-world-flags-country-1622049/ . Composite image by Scot Fagerland. 

[757] American flag by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://www.freeimg.net/photo/20128/rossflag-flag-historic-earlyflag .  Steam engine by ArtsyBeeKids, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/locomotive-steam-engine-industrial-5658936/  .  Napoleon image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/napoleon-napoleon-bonaparte-33073/ .  Revolution fist by Anne Fonda, https://pixy.org/102055/ .  Karl Marx image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/karl-marx-portrait-man-beard-2026379/ .  Darwin “A Venerable Orang-outang” image by anonymous (public domain), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Editorial_cartoon_depicting_Charles_Darwin_as_an_ape_(1871).jpg .  Airplane by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/biplane-red-wings-aviation-canvas-304935/ .  Computer image by OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/mainframe-cluster-servers-computers-146403/ .  Nuclear explosion image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/explosion-nuclear-cloud-mushroom-309529/ .  UN seal public domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:UN_emblem_blue.svg .  TV image by Meridith Nalls, https://pixy.org/371038/ .  (All accessed, saved, and / or archived Feb. 2021).  Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[758] Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” (1784, German) translated into English by Mary C. Smith, available at http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/etscc/kant.html (accessed and saved 5/04/19).

[759] Vladimir Popov and Jomo Kwame Sundaram, “Income Inequalities in Perspective”, Development 58, 196-205 (2/24/2017), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41301-016-0019-z (accessed and saved 12/30/20).  Table 1 shows that European Gini coefficients, which measure income inequality, were much higher in 1750 and 1800 than in 2000.  Also see Branko Milanovic, “Global Income Inequality by the Numbers: In History and Now – An Overview”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 6259 (Nov., 2012), https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/12117/wps6259.pdf (accessed and saved 12/30/20).  See esp. p. 20.  Milanovic shows that income inequality across classes has fallen significantly since 1870, although inequality has risen across different locations of the world.   

[760] This is a famous paraphrase of Locke’s actual words, “life, liberty, or estate” and “life, liberty, or possessions.” Two Treatises of Government (1689), available at https://oll.libertyfund.org/pages/john-locke-two-treatises-1689 (accessed 5/05/19). 

[761] Paine encouraged Americans to break free of England in his tract Common Sense, published January, 1776.  That April, George Washington wrote, “I find Common Sense is working a powerful change … in the minds of many men.”  Letter from George Washington to Joseph Reed, 4/01/1776, available at https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-04-02-0009 (accessed and saved 5/05/19).

[762] Alfred Cobban, “The First Modern Dictator: Napoleon Bonaparte”, from Dictatorship:  Its History and Theory, J. Cape (1939) pp. 79ff.

[763] Cobban, ibid at 85 – 86.  Reproduced at http://www.historyteacher.net/APEuroPassword/Reading-Dictatorship-ItsHistory&Theory-NapoleonAsDictator-AlfredCobban.htm (accessed, saved, and archived 4/18/21).

[764] This had been conventional wisdom ever since Rome failed as a republic.  Thomas Hobbes presented this thesis forcefully in his highly influential Leviathan (1651).

[765] Christos Nüssli, “Europe in Year 1800” and “Europe in Year 1900”, Euratlas (2009)  http://www.euratlas.net/history/europe/ (accessed and saved 5/05/19).

[766] Robert B. Holtman, The Napoleonic Revolution, LSU Press (1979).

[767] L. Pearce Williams, “Science, Education and Napoleon I”, Isis 47(4):369-382 at 369 (Dec., 1956), https://www.jstor.org/stable/226629 (accessed and saved 5/06/19).  

[768] Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address, spoken on November 19, 1863 and often reprinted.  Public domain.

[769] Conrad Hackett et al., “The Global Religious Landscape”, Pew Research Center (12/18/2012), https://www.pewforum.org/2012/12/18/global-religious-landscape-exec/ (accessed, saved, and archived 12/28/20).

[770] Jess Staufenberg, “The Six Countries in the World with the Most ‘Convinced Atheists’”, The Independent (3/23/2016), https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/atheists-countries-list-six-world-most-convinced-a6946291.html (accessed, saved, and archived 12/28/20).

[771] Karen Armstrong, A History of God, Vintage (London, 1999) p. 288.

[772] Jonathan I. Israel, Foreword to Wayne Hudson, et al., eds., Atheism and Deism Revalued, Routledge (New York, 2016), https://books.google.com/books?id=mxWdBQAAQBAJ , pp. 21 – 22  (accessed and saved 5/06/19).

[773] Will M. Gervais et al., “Global evidence of extreme intuitive moral prejudice against atheists”, Nature Human Behaviour vol. 1, Article 0151, pp. 1-5 (8/07/2017), https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0151 (accessed and saved 5/06/19).

[774] Phil Zuckerman, Society Without God, NYU Press (2008), https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0029VCUVK

[775] Richard Wike et al., “Globally, Broad Support for Representative and Direct Democracy”, Pew Research Center (10/16/2017), https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2017/10/16/globally-broad-support-for-representative-and-direct-democracy/ (accessed, saved, and archived 3/27/21).

[776] See e.g. Plato’s “Ship of State” metaphor, Republic 6:488a-489d (360 BCE), https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0168%3Abook%3D6%3Asection%3D488a .  Adapted from Lycaeus, who was alive in 600 BCE.  Accessed, saved, and archived 3/21/21.

[777] Luke Muehlhauser, “How big a deal was the Industrial Revolution?” Self-published but with compelling data (c. 2017), http://lukemuehlhauser.com/industrial-revolution/ (accessed 5/12/19).

[778] Gideon Rachman, “Urban-rural splits have become the great global divider”, Financial Times (7/30/2018), https://www.ft.com/content/e05cde76-93d6-11e8-b747-fb1e803ee64e (accessed and saved 5/12/19).

[779] Angus Maddison, “Statistics on World Population, GDP and Per Capita GDP, 1-2008 AD” (2010), originally at http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/oriindex.htm and now preserved at https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-database-2010 (accessed and saved 5/11/19).  China was the previous leader.  Maddison’s data shows that the US was larger than China by 1890, and interpolation indicates that this crossover occurred in 1889.  

[780] Peter Stearns, The Industrial Revolution in World History, 4th ed, Westview Press (e-book, 2013) Chapters 6 – 8.

[781] Cengiz Haksever and Barry Render, “The Important Role Services Play in an Economy”, Pearson (7/25/2013), http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=2095734&seqNum=3 (accessed and saved 5/12/19).

[782] David Pearce, “An Intellectual History of Environmental Economics”, Annu. Rev. Energy Environ. 27:57-81 (2002), https://www.cepal.org/ilpes/noticias/paginas/1/35691/JA_HistofEnvEcon.pdf (accessed and saved 5/12/19).

[783] Ramin Dadasov et al., “Natural resource production, corruption and expropriation,” Joint Discussion Paper Series in Economics, No. 36-2014 (6/30/2014), https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/102361/1/789526948.pdf (accessed and saved 5/12/19).

[784] Friedrich Engels, The Principles of Communism (German, 1847) Section 18.  English translation by Paul Sweezy available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm (accessed and saved 5/13/19).

[785] Karl Marx, “The Nature and Growth of Capital”, Wage Labor and Capital Ch. 5 (Originally in German, 1847), English translation available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/wage-labour/ch05.htm (accessed and saved 5/13/19).

[786] Friedrich Engels, The Principles of Communism (German, 1847) Section 17.  English translation by Paul Sweezy available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/11/prin-com.htm (accessed and saved 5/13/19).

[787] Jacob Davidson, “The 10 Richest People of All Time”, Money, 7/30/2015, http://time.com/money/3977798/the-10-richest-people-of-all-time/ (accessed and saved 5/13/19).

[788] Harry Truman, speech given 1:25 pm 10/10/1952, Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum, https://www.trumanlibrary.org/publicpapers/index.php/index.php?pid=2279&st=&st1= (accessed and saved 5/18/19).

[789] John von Neumann, “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC”, US Army / University of Pennsylvania (6/30/1945), https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/238389 (accessed and saved 5/18/19).

[790] The credible quote “estimate of 100 computers in the world in 1953” is oft-repeated online without any indication of its ultimate source.  The 1965 data (also credible but unattributed) is from  C.N. Trueman, “The Personal Computer”, The History Learning Site, 3/17/15, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/inventions-and-discoveries-of-the-twentieth-century/the-personal-computer/ (accessed and saved 5/18/19).

[791] John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, “Three-Electrode Circuit Element Utilizing Semiconductive Materials”, US Patent No. 2,524,035 (1948 – 1950), https://pdfpiw.uspto.gov/.piw?PageNum=0&docid=02524035 (accessed and saved 5/19/19).

[792] Ton Luong et al., “Timeline of Computer History”, Computer History Museum (2019), https://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/1981/ (accessed 5/19/19).

[793] Columbia University, “Japan’s quest for power and World War II in Asia”, 2009, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1900_power.htm (accessed and saved 5/19/19).

[794] Bill Price, The Unprevented War: Why the First World War was Fought, RW Press Ltd, (ebook, 2014) location 365.

[795] Price (2014), ibid., e.g. at locations 648 and 1122.

[796] Price (2014), ibid., locations 576 – 597.

[797] Matthew Smallman-Raynor and Andrew Cliff, “Impact of infectious diseases on war”, Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 18 (2004), 341 at 348, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891552004000248?via%3Dihub

[798] Germany’s expansionist ambitions were famously researched and written by Fritz Fischer in “Germany’s Aims in the First World War”, W.W. Norton, 1961, and most modern historians feel that Fischer’s thesis is strongly corroborated.    

[799] Alan Sharp,  “The Paris Peace Conference and its Consequences”, 1914 – 1918 Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War, http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/the_paris_peace_conference_and_its_consequences#National_Self-Determination (accessed and saved 5/19/19).

[800] Susan Townsend, “Japan’s Quest for Empire 1931 – 1945”, BBC (3/30/2011), https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/japan_quest_empire_01.shtml#five (accessed and saved 5/26/19).

[801] Richard J. Evans, “Decolonization: The End of Empire?”, Gresham College (4/18/2012), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LzatfgOQ9c&index=6&list=PL96EAE2875AF0EDEA , 2:14 ff (accessed 5/19/19).

[802] UN General Assembly Declaration 1514, “Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples”, (12/14/1960), http://www.un.org/en/decolonization/declaration.shtml (accessed and saved 5/19/19).

[803] US Dep’t of State Office of the Historian, “Decolonization of Africa and Asia, 1945 – 1960”, Milestones in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations, https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/asia-and-africa (accessed and saved 5/20/19).

[804] The Economist Intelligence Unit, “Democracy Index 2020”, https://www.eiu.com/n/campaigns/democracy-index-2020/ .  45% of today’s countries qualify as a “full” or “flawed” democracy.  They encompass 49% of today’s people. 

[805] Noah Buyon et al., “Freedom in the World 2020”, Freedom House (2020), http://planetrulers.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/freedom-in-the-world-2020-report-freedom-house.pdf (accessed and saved 3/28/21). This report is updated annually at https://planetrulers.com/current-dictators/

[806] United Nations.  Charter Article 2(4) (1945) http://legal.un.org/repertory/art2.shtml (accessed and saved 5/20/19) and Resolution 3314 Article 5 Paragraph 3 (1974) http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/3314(XXIX) (accessed and saved 5/20/19). 

[807] Daniel J. Christie and Thomas E. Cooper, “Peace Psychology”, Encyclopedia Britannica (10/01/2014), https://www.britannica.com/science/peace-psychology (accessed and saved 5/20/19).

[808] Anthony Benezet, A Caution and a Warning to Great Britain and her Colonies (1766) pp.9-10, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_caution_and_warning_to_Great_Britain_and_Her_Colonies_in_a_short_representation_of_the_calamitous_state_of_the_enslaved_negroes_in_the_British_Dominions (accessed and saved 4/29/19).

[809] Jack Donnelly, “6.A: National Implementation of International Human Rights”, Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice, 3rd edition, Cornell University Press (Kindle ebook, 2013) pp. 32-33.

[810] Donnelly, Universal Human Rights at 31.

[811] United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights Articles 13 and 14, https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ (accessed and saved 4/29/19).

[812] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2nd edition (1997).  Paragraph 2370 is the most relevant to birth control, and its full context is “The Love of Husband and Wife”, paragraphs 2360 – 2379.  English version at http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P86.HTM (accessed and saved 4/29/19). 

[813] Thomas Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798 – 1826), https://www.econlib.org/library/Malthus/malPlong.html (accessed 4/14/19).

[814] Malthus called this “moral restraint” in An Essay on the Principle of Population, 2nd edition (1803). 

[815] Clelia Duel Mosher, “Study of the Physiology and Hygiene of Marriage”, 1892 – 1912, unpublished, https://purl.stanford.edu/sr010vc5273 (accessed and saved 4/14/19). Summarized by Kara Platoni in “The Sex Scholar”, Stanford Magazine, March – April, 2010, http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=29954 (accessed and saved 12/21/15).

[816] United Nations, Final Act of the International Conference on Human Rights, Teheran, 1968, A/CONF.32/41, Sales # E.68.XIV.2, http://legal.un.org/avl/pdf/ha/fatchr/Final_Act_of_TehranConf.pdf (accessed and saved 12/24/15), p. 4.  Proclamation 16 recognizes parents’ right to determine the number and spacing of children.  “Privacy” was recognized as a human right in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as was the right to marry and raise a family.  These rights in tandem imply sex as a human right at least between married couples.  The sexual rights of unmarried and same-sex couples are still evolving.

[817] Nancy Gibbs, Love, Sex, Freedom and the Paradox of the Pill:  A Brief History of Birth Control, Adams Media (Kindle Edition, 2010), Location 81.

[818] Eisenstadt v. Baird, 45 US 438 (1972), https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/405/438/ (accessed and saved 4/14/19).

[819] UN Secretariat, Population Division, “Fertility, Contraception and Population Policies”, 4/25/03, ESA/P/WP.182, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/contraception2003/Web-final-text.PDF p. 1 (accessed and saved 4/14/19).

[820] Ansley Coale and Edgar Hoover, Population Growth and Economic Development in Low-Income Countries, Princeton University Press (Princeton, NJ, 1958).  Summarized by David Horlacher, “Coale-Hoover Growth Model”, Middlebury College (2014), http://sites.middlebury.edu/econ0428/coale-hoover-growth-model/ (accessed and saved 4/14/19).

[821] Fred Sai and Lauren Chester, “The Role of the World Bank in Shaping Third World Population Policy”, Population Policy: Contemporary Issues, Praeger, 1990, pp. 3-5, http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1990/11/01/000009265_3960930033843/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf (accessed and saved 4/14/19).  

[822] World Bank data accessible on Google, http://www.google.com/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&ctype=l&strail=false&bcs=d&nselm=h&met_y=sp_dyn_tfrt_in&scale_y=lin&ind_y=false&rdim=region&ifdim=region&tdim=true&hl=en_US&dl=en_US&ind=false&icfg#!ctype=l&strail=false&bcs=d&nselm=h&met_y=sp_dyn_tfrt_in&scale_y=lin&ind_y=false&rdim=region&ifdim=region&tdim=true&tstart=-284659200000&tend=1387872000000&hl=en_US&dl=en_US&ind=false (accessed and graph saved 4/14/19).

[823] Sir John Sulston et al., “People and the Planet”, The Royal Society (April 2012), https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/people-planet/report/ (accessed, saved, and archived 4/04/21).

[824] Godfrey Hardy, “Mendelian proportions in a mixed population”, Science, N.S. Vol. XXVIII: 49-50 (letter to the editor) (4/05/1908), http://www.esp.org/foundations/genetics/classical/hardy.pdf (accessed and saved 4/14/19).

[825] Pew Research Center, “Projected Annual Growth Rate of Country Populations, 2010 – 2050”, 3/26/15, http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/religious-projections-2010-2050/pf_15-04-02_projectionsoverview_worldgrowthrate640px/ (accessed 4/14/19).

[826] John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company: A Short History of a Revolutionary Idea, Modern Library (Kindle Edition, 2003).  Limited liability is a major theme throughout this book. 

[827] Vincent Trivett, “25 US Mega Corporations: Where they rank if they were countries”, Business Insider, 6/27/2011, http://www.businessinsider.com/25-corporations-bigger-tan-countries-2011-6?op=1 (accessed and saved 4/29/19).

[828] William Henry Hutt,  “The Concept of Consumers’ Sovereignty”, The Economic Journal (Wiley) 50 (197): 66–77 (March, 1940), https://www.jstor.org/stable/2225739 (accessed and 1st page saved 4/29/19).

[829] Thomas Friedman, “Foreign Affairs Big Mac I” (12/08/1996) and “Big Mac II” (12/11/1996), New York Timeshttps://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/08/opinion/foreign-affairs-big-mac-i.html and https://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/11/opinion/big-mac-ii.html (both accessed and saved 4/28/19).

[830] Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser, “Urbanization”, Our World in Data (Sep. 2018) https://ourworldindata.org/urbanization  particularly the graph entitled “Urbanization over the past 500 years” (accessed and graph saved 5/31/19).

[831] John Tosh, “Part Three:  Domesticity Under Strain, c. 1870 – 1900”, A Man’s Place:  Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England, Yale University Press (New Haven, 2007), pp. 145 – 194. 

[832] Hugh McLeod, The Religious Crisis of the 1960s, Oxford University Press, 2007.

[833] Phrase apparently coined by Lenore J. Weitzman, The Divorce Revolution:  The Unexpected Social and Economic Consequences for Women and Children in America, Free Press (1985).

[834] Robert T. Michael, “Two Papers on the Recent Rise in U.S. Divorce Rates”, Center for Economic Analysis of Human Behavior and Social Institutions” (1977), https://www.nber.org/papers/w0202.pdf (accessed and saved 4/28/19).

[835] Allen M. Parkman, Good Intentions Gone Awry: No-Fault Divorce and the American Family, Rowman & Littlefield (2000).

[836] Mary Parke, “Are Married Parents Really Better For Children?  What Research Says about the Effects of Family Structure on Child Well-Being”, Center for Law and Social Policy (Washington, DC, May, 2003), https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED476114 (accessed and saved 4/28/19).

[837] http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/archive/Sharing-Responsibility.pdf , p. 42.  (accessed and saved 4/28/19).

[838] James C. Howell, “Youth Gangs: An Overview”, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, August 1998, p. 2 http://www.ojjdp.gov/jjbulletin/9808/history.html (accessed and saved 4/29/19).

[839] James C. Howell and Scott H. Decker, “The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection”, Juvenile Justice Bulletin, January 1999, p. 2, https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/93920.pdf (accessed and saved 4/29/19)  

[840] PBS, “A social history of America’s most popular drugs”, Frontline, c. 2014, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/buyers/socialhistory.html (accessed and saved 4/29/19).

[841] Descartes image in the public domain. Chef hat image by OpenClipArt, public domain, https://freesvg.org/chefs-hat-image (accessed, saved, and archived 7/10/22). Soup image by OpenClipArt, public domain, https://freesvg.org/soup (accessed, saved, and archived 7/10/22).   

[842] Kwame Nkrumah, Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism (classic book, 1965). 

[843] See e.g. https://theawakener.ca/ (accessed and archived 4/18/21).  On the “Patriots” page:  “The New World Order seeks to control and enslave all humanity.  To do this it requires changing, and then destroying, the United States of America in her current capacity.”

[844] See e.g. Marion Smith, “How Did America Forget What ‘Socialism’ Means?” Politico (3/22/2016), https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/03/obama-cuba-trip-socialism-213757/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/05/21).

[845] Mike Godwin, “Meme, Counter-meme”, Wired (10/01/1994), https://www.wired.com/1994/10/godwin-if-2/ (accessed, saved, and archived 9/05/21).

Chapter 1 Citations

[846] Hourglass image same as other chapters (see notes 1 & 2) . Cell phone tower by OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/cell-mobile-tower-antenna-157106/ . Skateboarder by Kasie Schlagel, https://pixy.org/4718478/ . Bicyclist by No-longer-here, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/cyclist-cycling-bicycle-cycle-908942/ . Little girl by ShubN, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/silhouette-girl-woman-shadow-4844084/ . Jumping boy by GDJ, https://pixabay.com/vectors/jumping-boy-male-human-people-2730375/ . Rock climbers by GDJ, https://pixabay.com/vectors/rock-climbing-people-silhouette-5715707/ . “Selfie” by Matt Brooks, https://thenounproject.com/term/selfie/61654/ . “Walking and Texting” by Matt Brooks, https://thenounproject.com/term/walking-and-texting/63045/ . Text-walking woman by Mohamed_hassan, https://pixabay.com/vectors/woman-phone-walking-text-bag-3946592/ . Emoji by Emoji One, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emojione_1F606.svg  . Facemask by Lola4556677, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/face-mask-mask-corona-virus-icon-5879643/ . (All accessed, saved, and / or archived Feb. 2021). Composite image by Scot Fagerland.       

[847] Computer monitor:  OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/display-icons-monitor-1293742/ . AIDS ribbon:  OpenClipArt-Vectors, https://pixabay.com/vectors/ribbon-loop-award-band-red-148760/ . 9/11 Memorial:  web-36reg, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/twins-new-york-twin-towers-1975391/ . Google icon:  Amparo Ryburn, https://pixy.org/4766956/ . Recession graphic:  Mediamodifier, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/graph-diagram-recession-3078540/ .  iPhone:  Clker-Free-Vector-Images, https://pixabay.com/vectors/iphone-cellphone-smartphone-mobile-37856/ . Putin:  KissClipArt, https://www.kissclipart.com/vladimir-putin-vector-clipart-vladimir-putin-presi-vp1v83/ . Xi flag:  Douurunzhu, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:XiFlag1.png . Trump / Twitter:  GDJ, https://pixabay.com/vectors/donald-trump-twitter-social-media-4539866/ . Coronavirus:  iXimus, https://pixabay.com/vectors/coronavirus-symbol-corona-virus-5058258/ . All accessed, saved, and / or archived Feb. 2021. Timeline & composite image by Scot Fagerland.

[848] E.g. World Wide Web, World Wide Web Consortium, http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html

[849] Mark Fischetti, “The World Wide Web Became Free 20 Years Ago Today”, Scientific American (4/30/2013), https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/the-world-wide-web-became-free-20-years-ago-today/ (accessed and saved 4/08/19).

[850] Johnny Ryan, A history of the internet and the digital future, Reaktion Books (London, 2010), p. 110.

[851] W. Hoogland and H. Weber, “Statement concerning CERN W3 software release into public domain” (4/30/1993), http://cds.cern.ch/record/1164399 (accessed and saved 4/09/19).

[852] “Acceptable Use Policy”, National Science Foundation (c. 1992), provisions (10) and (11), http://www.cybertelecom.org/notes/nsfnet.htm#aup (accessed and saved 2/09/19).

[853] Susannah Fox and Lee Rainie, “The Web at 25 in the U.S. Part 1:  How the internet has woven itself into American life”, Pew Research Center (2/27/2014), http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/02/27/part-1-how-the-internet-has-woven-itself-into-american-life/ (accessed and saved 2/09/19).

[854] “For the first time, more than half of the world’s population is using the internet”, International Telecommunication Union (12/07/2018), https://www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/Pages/2018-PR40.aspx (accessed and saved 2/09/19).

[855] Andrew Perrin and Jingjing Jiang, “About a quarter of U.S. adults say they are ‘almost constantly’ online”, Pew Research Center (3/14/2018), http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/03/14/about-a-quarter-of-americans-report-going-online-almost-constantly/ (accessed and saved 2/09/19).

[856] Comscore Whitepaper (3/30/2016), https://www.comscore.com/Insights/Presentations-and-Whitepapers/2016/2016-US-Cross-Platform-Future-in-Focus as quoted by David Murphy, “ComScore: Desktop Browsing on the Decline”, PCMag (4/16/2016), https://www.pcmag.com/news/343784/comscore-desktop-browsing-on-the-decline (accessed and saved 2/10/19).

[857] Douglas J. Guerrero et al., “Anti-reflective coating for multipatterning lithography”, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6923 (2008), https://www.brewerscience.com/uploads/publications/2008/Guerreroetal2008_6923Web.pdf (accessed and saved 2/10/19).

[858] Els Parton and Peter Verheyen, “Strained silicon – the key to sub-45 nm CMOS”, III-Vs Review 19(3):28-31 (April, 2006), https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961129006715903 (accessed and saved 2/10/19).

[859] Clive Thompson, “YouTube’s Plot to Silence Conspiracy Theories”, Wired (9/18/2020), https://www.wired.com/story/youtube-algorithm-silence-conspiracy-theories/ (accessed 9/05/21).

[860] The Chinese government relies on a workforce of over 2,000,000 internet police. Staff writer, “China employs two million microblog monitors state media say”, BBC (10/04/2013), https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-24396957 (accessed, saved, and archived 5/02/21).

[861] Leo Mirani, “Millions of Facebook users have no idea they’re using the internet”, Quartz (2/09/2015), https://qz.com/333313/milliions-of-facebook-users-have-no-idea-theyre-using-the-internet/ (accessed and saved 2/11/19).

[862] Guy Faulconbridge and Paul Sandle, “Father of Web says tech giants may have to be split up”, Reuters (10/31/2018), https://www.reuters.com/article/us-technology-www/father-of-web-says-tech-giants-may-have-to-be-split-up-idUSKCN1N63MV (accessed and saved 2/11/19).

[863] Mobile Ecosystem Forum, “Understanding the Personal Data Economy: The Emergence of a New Data Value-Exchange” (c. 2017), https://mobileecosystemforum.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Understanding-the-Personal-Data-Economy-Whitepaper.pdf (accessed and saved 5/02/21).

[864] Jesse Campbell, “The Secret, Magical Math of Credit Scores”, Personal Capital (3/12/2015), https://www.personalcapital.com/blog/family-life/secret-magical-math-credit-scores/ (accessed, saved, and archived 5/02/21).

[865] Cathy O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction, Broadway Books (Amazon Kindle e-book edition, 2017), p. 12.

[866] Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy:  The Making of Typographic Man, University of Toronto Press (1962). McLuhan coined the phrase global village to describe the effect of instant electronic communication on the effective shrinking of the world. With amazing prescience, he practically predicted the internet in the early 1960’s.

[867] Todd Leopold, “The price of public shaming in the Internet age”, CNN (4/16/2015), https://www.cnn.com/2015/04/16/living/feat-public-shaming-ronson/index.html (accessed and saved 2/11/19).

[868] Robert C. Allen, “The rise and decline of the Soviet economy”, Canadian Journal of Economics vol. 34, No. 4 (November, 2001), http://content.csbs.utah.edu/~mli/Economics%207004/Allen-103.pdf (accessed and saved 2/24/19).

[869] Matthew Johnston, “The Post-Soviet Union Russian Economy”, Investopedia (10/15/2018), https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/012116/russian-economy-collapse-soviet-union.asp (accessed and saved 2/25/19).

[870] United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, “Report on Russian Active Measures Campaigns and Interference in the 2016 U.S. Election” (7/25/2019). Vol. 1, “Russian Efforts against Election Infrastructure”, https://www.intelligence.senate.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Report_Volume1.pdf . Vol. 2, “Russia’s Use of Social Media with Additional Views”, https://www.intelligence.senate.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Report_Volume2.pdf (both accessed and saved 5/30/20).

[871] Council of the European Communities, “Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on 7 February 1992”, Official Journal of the European Communities vol. 35 (7/29/1992), https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=OJ:C:1992:191:FULL&from=EN (accessed 2/24/19). The Maastricht Treaty took effect in November, 1993.

[872] European Commission, “Conditions for membership”, European Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations (6/12/2016), https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/policy/conditions-membership_en (accessed and saved 2/25/19).

[873] Chinese Ministry of Commerce, “Socialist Market Economic System” (6/25/2004), http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/article/topic/bizchina/economicsystem/200406/20040600239133.shtml (accessed and saved 2/25/19).

[874] Maqsudul Hasan Nuri, “China’s economic development: Confucian values”, Business Recorder (4/03/2016), https://fp.brecorder.com/2016/04/2016040332073/ (accessed and saved 2/24/19).

[875] Junyan Jiang, “Making Bureaucracy Work:  Patronage Networks, Performance Incentives, and Economic Development in China”, American Journal of Political Science 62(4):982-999 (9/20/2018), https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ajps.12394?af=R (accessed and saved 2/24/19).

[876] Parag Khanna, The Second World, Random House (New York, 2009).

[877] Bush first used this term publicly in a Joint Address to Sessions of Congress on 9/20/2001, https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html (accessed and saved 2/17/19).

[878] Neta C. Crawford, “United States Budgetary Costs of the Post-9/11 Wars Through FY2019:  $5.9 Trillion Spent and Obligated”, Costs of War (11/14/2018), Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/files/cow/imce/papers/2018/Crawford_Costs%20of%20War%20Estimates%20Through%20FY2019.pdf (accessed and saved 2/23/19).

[879] Death toll = 500,000 according to Neta C. Crawford, “Human Cost of the Post-9/11 Wars: Lethality and the Need for Transparency”, Costs of War (November, 2018), Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/files/cow/imce/papers/2018/Human%20Costs,%20Nov%208%202018%20CoW.pdf (accessed and saved 2/23/19). Death toll = 1 – 2 million according to Physicians for Social Responsibility, “Body Count:  Casualty Figures after 10 Years of the ‘War on Terror’” (March, 2015), http://www.ippnw.de/commonFiles/pdfs/Frieden/Body_Count_first_international_edition_2015_final.pdf (accessed and saved 2/24/19).

[880] Charles P. Kindleberger and Robert Z. Aliber, Manias, Panics, and Crashes, 6ed, MacMillan Publishers (2011), p. 278.

[881] Ibid at 254.

[882] John B. Judis, The Populist Explosion, Columbia Global Reports (Amazon Kindle edition, 2016), pp. 12 – 13.

[883] Judis, ibid at p. 74.

[884] Edoardo Campanella, “The Link between Aging and Populism”, Retirement Income Journal (10/19/2018), https://retirementincomejournal.com/article/the-link-between-aging-and-populism/ (accessed, saved, and archived 5/16/21).

[885] Pew Research Center, “Wide Gender Gap, Growing Educational Divide in Voters’ Party Identification” (3/20/2018), PDF pp. 10 – 12 (accessed, saved, and archived 5/16/21).

[886] Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses (1929), as relayed by Daniele Archibugi and Marco Cellini, “How dangerous is populism for democracy?” Populism and Democracy 11(21) (4/10/2018), https://www.21global.ucsb.edu/global-e/april-2018/how-dangerous-populism-democracy (accessed, saved, and archived 5/16/21).

[887] Ezgi Elçi, “Politics of Nostalgia and Populism:  Evidence from Turkey”, British Journal of Political Science (1/27/2021), pp. 1 – 18, https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-political-science/article/politics-of-nostalgia-and-populism-evidence-from-turkey/C10B76D6ECD98E096E225EC1FA892B09 (accessed and saved 5/16/21).

[888] Kent Jones, Populism and Trade:  The Challenge to the World Trade Organization, Oxford University Press (2021), p. 4, https://www.google.com/books/edition/Populism_and_Trade/kzkqEAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&pg=PA4 .

[889] Gyozo Gyongyosi and Emil Verner, “Financial Crisis, Creditor-Debtor Conflict, and Political Extremism”, SSRN (November, 2018), https://ssrn.com/abstract=3289741 (accessed and saved 2/24/19).  

[890] Judis, op. cit. at pp. 58 – 59.

[891] See e.g. Eric Trump, Tweet of 5:53 AM 12/23/20, https://twitter.com/EricTrump/status/1341743801715593216 ; User agkeiser, “Under COVID Cover”, Occupy Forum (12/16/20), http://occupywallst.org/forum/under-covid-cover/    (accessed, saved, and archived 7/05/21) ; and Patrice Onwuka, “If there’s another stimulus package, it shouldn’t discourage work”, The Hill (5/27/2020), https://thehill.com/opinion/civil-rights/499781-if-theres-another-stimulus-package-it-shouldnt-discourage-work (accessed, saved, and archived 7/05/21).

[892] Charles David Keeling, “The concentration and isotopic abundances of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere”, Tellus vol. 12 no. 2 (June, 1960), http://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/assets/publications/keeling_tellus_1960.pdf (accessed and saved 3/18/19).

[893] James Hansen, “Statement … presented to United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources” (6/23/1988), http://image.guardian.co.uk/sys-files/Environment/documents/2008/06/23/ClimateChangeHearing1988.pdf (accessed and saved 3/18/19)

[894] European Space Agency:  “Satellites witness lowest Arctic ice coverage in history” (9/14/2007), http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Earth/Envisat/Satellites_witness_lowest_Arctic_ice_coverage_in_history (accessed and saved 4/06/19).

[895] John A. Church and Neil J. White, “Sea-Level Rise from the Late 19th to the Early 21st Century”, Surveys in Geophysics vol. 32 issue 4-5, pp. 585-602 (Sep., 2011), https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10712-011-9119-1 (accessed and saved 4/06/19).

[896] IPCC, “Characteristics of mitigation pathways”, Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers, https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/AR5_SYR_FINAL_SPM.pdf p. 20 (accessed and saved 3/18/19).

[897] https://www.thetrumparchive.com/?searchbox=%22global+warming%22  (accessed 7/10/22).

[898] Sally Peck, “Al Gore’s ‘Nine Inconvenient Untruths’”, The Telegraph (10/11/2007), https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/earthnews/3310137/Al-Gores-nine-Inconvenient-Untruths.html (accessed and saved 3/18/19).

[899] It is hard to find centrist presentations about global warming. The best example I have found of a book written from a neutral fact-and-solution-finding position is Frank P. Incropera, Climate Change: a Wicked Problem, Cambridge University Press (2016).

[900] Gill Ereaut and Nat Segnit, “Warm Words: How are we telling the climate story and can we tell it better?” Institute for Public Policy Research (August, 2006), http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi= (accessed and saved 3/18/19). I don’t know if this article is peer-reviewed, but I highly recommend it as a rare and insightful meta-analysis of climate science as a social debate.

[901] Jacque Pepin, The Origins of AIDS, Cambridge Press, 2011, p. 1

[902] This paragraph based on Pepin, ibid.

[903] Raymond S. Weinstein et al., “Significantly reduced CCR5-tropic HIV-1 replication in vitro in cells from subjects previously immunized with Vaccinia Virus”, BMC Immunology 22:23 (5/18/2010),  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/11/23/abstract (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[904] Nordheimer, Jon, “With AIDS about, heterosexuals are rethinking casual sex,” New York Times, 3/22/1986, http://www.nytimes.com/1986/03/22/us/with-aids-about-heterosexuals-are-rethinking-casual-sex.html?pagewanted=all, accessed 6/08/2013.

[905] Raw data at AIDSInfo Online Database, www.AIDSinfoOnline.org. Summarized by Max Roser and Hannah Ritchie, “HIV / AIDS”, Our World in Data (2014 – 2018), https://ourworldindata.org/hiv-aids (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[906] Shors, Teri (2008). Understanding Viruses. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 0-7637-2932-9 , pp. 48 – 50.

[907] Gero Hütter et al., “Long-Term Control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 Stem-Cell Transplantation”, N Engl J Med 360:692-698 (2/12/2009), https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0802905#t=article (accessed and saved 2/07/19).

[908] Asier Sáez-Cirión et al., “Post-Treatment HIV-1 Controllers with a Long-Term Virological Remission after the Interruption of Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study”, PLOS Pathogens 9(3), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003211 (accessed and saved 2/07/19).

[909] Peter L. Anderson et al., “Emtricitabine-Tenofovir Concentrations and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Efficacy in Men Who Have Sex with Men”, Science Translational Medicine 4(151) (9/12/2012),  https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/151/151ra125 (accessed and saved 12/30/20).

[910] Rochelle P. Walensky and A. David Paltiel, “PrEP School:  A Field Manual for the Battle Over HIV Prevention Drug Pricing”, Health Affairs (8/29/2019), https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20190826.11005/full/#:~:text=For%20many%20PrEP%2Deligible%20individuals,is%20the%20most%20insurmountable%20obstacle. (accessed, saved, and archived 12/30/20).

[911] “Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: HIV/AIDS”, World Health Organization, https://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/  (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[912] See e.g. Jacki Lyden and Hank Plante, “Amid Daily Struggles, Gay Rights Movement Embraces Watershed Moments”, National Public Radio (2/09/13), http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=171585896 (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[913] “The Danish Registered Partnership Act”, D/341- H- ML Act No. 372 (6/01/1989),    http://www.qrd.org/qrd/world/europe/denmark/registered.partnership.act.with.amendments (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[914] Israel B. Olaore and Augusta Y. Olaore, “Is HIV/AIDS a consequence or divine judgment? Implications for faith-based social services. A Nigerian faith-based university’s study”, Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS 11(1):20-25 (5/12/2014), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4272139/ (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[915] Evelyn Schlatter and Robert Steinback, “10 Anti-Gay Myths Debunked”, The Intelligence Report (2/27/2011), https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/intelligence-report/2011/10-anti-gay-myths-debunked (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[916] Jojanneke van der Toorn et al., “In Defense of Tadition:  Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America”, Pers Soc Psychol Bull 43(10):1455 (7/22/2017), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665159/ (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[917] Bryan Fischer, “Focal Point”, American Family Radio (7/20/2011), quoted by Kyle Mantyla in “Fischer: Gay Rights and Religious Liberty Cannot Coexist”, Right Wing Watch (7/20/2011), http://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/fischer-gay-rights-and-religious-liberty-cannot-coexist/ (accessed and saved 2/03/19).

[918] “Attitudes to same-sex relationships around the world”, The Economist (11/02/2017), https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2017/11/02/attitudes-to-same-sex-relationships-around-the-world (accessed and saved 2/04/19).

[919] “Same-Sex Marriage Detailed Tables, 2017”, Pew Research Center (6/26/2017), www.people-press.org/2017/06/26/same-sex-marriage-detailed-tables-2017/ (accessed and saved 2/04/19).

[920] “Maps: Sexual Orientation Laws”, ILGA (Oct., 2017), https://ilga.org/maps-sexual-orientation-laws (accessed and saved 2/04/19).

[921] Eben Kirksey, “The Man Who Smelled Like Rancid Creamed Corn to Usher In a New Scientific Era”, The Atlantic (12/19/2018), https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2018/12/hiv-aids-genetic-engineering/578560/ (accessed and saved 2/04/19).

[922] James H. McMahon et al., “Leveraging the advances in HIV for COVID-19”, The Lancet 396(10256):943-944 (10/03/2020), https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)32012-2/fulltext (accessed and saved 12/30/20).

[923] Jean Bennett et al., “AAV2 Gene Therapy Readministration in Three Adults with Congenital Blindness”, Science Translational Medicine 4(120):120 ff (2/08/2012), http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/120/120ra15.abstract (paysite accessed 2/05/19).

[924] Amit C. Nathwani et al., “Adenovirus-Associated Virus Vector-Mediated Gene Transfer in Hemophilia B”, N Engl J Med 365:2357-65 (12/22/2011), https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1108046 (accessed and saved 2/05/19).

[925] David L. Porter et al., “Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells in Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia”, N Engl J Med 365:725-33 (8/25/2011), https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1103849 (accessed and saved 2/05/19).

[926] Bruno Bernardes de Jesus et al., “Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer”, EMBO Mol Med 4, 691-704 (5/15/2012), http://embomolmed.embopress.org/content/4/8/691 (accessed and saved 2/06/19).

[927] He Jiankui, “About Lulu and Nana:  Twin Girls Born Healthy After Gene Surgery As Single-Cell Embryos”, The He Lab (11/25/2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=th0vnOmFltc&app=desktop (Accessed 2/06/19, before Jiankui published results).

[928] Nathalie Cartier et al., “Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy with a lentiviral vector in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy”, Science 326(5954):818-23 (11/06/2009), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892975 (accessed 2/08/19).

[929] Cary Funk, Brian Kennedy, and Elizabeth Sciupae, “U.S. Public Wary of Biomedical Technologies to ‘Enhance’ Human Abilities”, Pew Research Center (7/26/2016), http://www.pewresearch.org/science/2016/07/26/u-s-public-opinion-on-the-future-use-of-gene-editing/ (accessed and saved 2/07/19).

[930] Singh, Ajt (2008): Historical Examination of the Golden Age of Full Employment in Western Europe. Published in: Missing Links in the Unemployment Relationship, Arestis, P and McCombie, J (eds) (2009): pp. 51-71.

[931] James Manyika et al., “Independent work: Choice, necessity, and the gig economy”, McKinsey Global Institute (Oct. 2016), https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/employment-and-growth/independent-work-choice-necessity-and-the-gig-economy (accessed and saved 3/09/19).

[932] Julie Sonier et al., “State-Level Trends in Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance”, State Health Access Data Assistance Center (Apr., 2013), https://www.rwjf.org/content/rwjf/en/library/research/2013/04/state-level-trends-in-employer-sponsored-health-insurance.html?cq_ck=1365787641906 (accessed and saved 4/07/19).

[933] Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Largest industries by state, 1990–2013 on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2014/ted_20140728.htm (visited March 09, 2019).

[934] U.S. Census Bureau, “Survey of Income and Program Participation” (2008), as presented by Timothy Taylor, “A Decline in On-the-Job Training”, Conversable Economist (2/26/2015), http://conversableeconomist.blogspot.com/2015/02/a-decline-in-on-job-training.html (accessed and saved 3/10/19).

[935] Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (2015), variable “Population size by education level” (global), http://www.oeaw.ac.at/vid/dataexplorer/ , as summarized by Max Roser and Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, “Global Rise of Education”, Our World in Data (2019), graph entitled “Projected world population by level of education”, https://ourworldindata.org/global-rise-of-education (accessed and saved 3/10/19).

[936] Joseph B. Fuller and Manjari Raman, “Dismissed by Degrees”, published by Accenture, Grads of Life, and Harvard Business School (Oct. 2017), http://www.hbs.edu/managing-the-future-of-work/Documents/dismissed-by-degrees.pdf (accessed and saved 3/10/19).

[937] Jon Marcus, “Panicked universities in search of students are adding thousands of new majors”, The Hechinger Report (8/09/2018), https://hechingerreport.org/panicked-universities-in-search-of-students-are-adding-thousands-of-new-majors/ (accessed and saved 4/01/19).

[938] Joseph Chamie, “Student Debt Rising Worldwide”, Yale Global (5/18/2017), https://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/student-debt-rising-worldwide (accessed and saved 3/10/19).

[939] “Provide Quality and Affordable Education”, The 2016 Democratic Party Platform, Democratic National Committee (July, 2016), https://democrats.org/about/party-platform/#affordable-education (accessed 3/10/19).

[940] Yan Cao and Tariq Habash, “College Complaints Unmasked”, The Century Foundation (11/08/2017), https://tcf.org/content/report/college-complaints-unmasked/ (accessed and saved 3/14/19).

[941] US Dep’t of Education data as summarized by Chris Quintana, “A college closed, leaving thousands without a degree. How to keep it from happening to you”, USA Today (3/26/2019), https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/education/2019/03/26/how-to-choose-a-college-argosy-university-college-closing/3211480002/ (accessed and saved 4/01/19).

[942] Hans and Ola Rosling, “Number of People by Income”, Don’t Panic, How to End Poverty, Gapminder (Sep. 2015). Visualization at https://www.gapminder.org/tools/#$state$time$value=1975;;&chart-type=mountain (accessed and partly saved 3/11/19), description and sources at https://www.gapminder.org/news/data-sources-dont-panic-end-poverty/ Section 8, “World Income Distribution” (accessed and saved 3/11/19). This is a tour de force of statistical gathering and analysis, and a stunning visualization that I highly recommend. It had trouble displaying on the Microsoft Edge Browser when I accessed it.

[943] Homi Kharas and Kristofer Hamel, “A global tipping point: Half the world is now middle class or wealthier”, Brookings Institution (9/27/2018), https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/middle-class-poverty-economics-business-a8567191.html (accessed and saved 3/11/19).

[944] BBC News, “The Second Industrial Revolution,” 5/11/04, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3701581.stm

[945] International Monetary Fund, “Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects”, World Economic Outlook Database (Apr. 2017), https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=72&pr.y=12&sy=2006&ey=2018&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=001%2C110%2C163%2C200&s=NGDP_RPCH&grp=1&a=1 (accessed and saved 3/11/19).

[946] ICEF Monitor, “Global tourism report highlights key travel trends” (8/01/2018), http://monitor.icef.com/2018/08/global-tourism-report-highlights-key-travel-trends/ (accessed and saved 3/11/19).

[947] US Bureau of Labor Statistics, “American Time Use Survey Summary” (6/28/2018), https://www.bls.gov/news.release/atus.nr0.htm (accessed and saved 3/11/19).

[948] See pioneering site www.NetAddiction.com 

[949] Mark Aguiar et al., “Leisure Luxuries and the Labor Supply of Young Men”, NBER Working Paper No. 23552 (June, 2017), https://www.nber.org/papers/w23552 (accessed and saved 3/03/19).

[950] Google NGram Viewer, https://books.google.com/ngrams search for “Identity Politics” (1960 – 2008). Queried 3/16/19, graph saved.

[951] Bruce Bawer, The Victims’ Revolution, Harper Collins (2012), Amazon Kindle edition, location 53.

[952] Frank Furedi, “The hidden history of identity politics”, Spiked (12/01/2017), https://www.spiked-online.com/2017/12/01/the-hidden-history-of-identity-politics/20596/#.WiUcjkbyhhE (accessed and saved 3/12/19).

[953] In the US, for example, see Suzanne Macartney, Alemayehu Bishaw, and Kayla Fontenot, “Poverty Rates for Selected Detailed Race and Hispanic Groups by State and Place:  2007-2011”, US Census Bureau (Feb. 2013), https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/2013/acs/acsbr11-17.pdf (accessed and saved 3/31/19).

[954] See e.g. Douglas Holtz-Eakin, “Reducing Poverty the Republican Way”, Pathways (Winter, 2016), pp. 15 – 17, https://inequality.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Pathways_Presidential_Republican-Way.pdf or David French, “The Myth of the Virtuous Poor”, National Review (2/06/2017), https://www.nationalreview.com/magazine/2017/02/06/poverty-morality-conservatives/ (both accessed and saved 4/06/19). Neither article mentions anything about race or ethnicity.

[955] Robert O. Self, All in the Family, Hill and Wang (Kindle edition, 2012). A central thesis of Self’s book is the tension between positive and negative rights as arising from changing home economics in the 1960s, a major factor in the left / right divide of today.

[956] See e.g. Rasmussen Reports, “51% See Democrats as Party of ‘Identity Politics and Victimology’” (6/25/2018), http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/june_2018/51_see_democrats_as_party_of_identity_politics_and_victimology (accessed and saved 3/31/19).

[957] Joseph E. Uscinski, “Down the Rabbit Hole We Go!”, Conspiracy Theories & the People Who Believe Them, Joseph E. Uscinski, ed., Oxford University Press (Amazon Kindle edition, 2019) locations 393 – 398.

[958] Hugo Drochon, “Britons are swallowing conspiracy theories. Here’s how to stop the rot”, Guardian (11/28/2018), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/nov/28/britons-swallowing-conspiracy-theories-stop-rot-research-fake-news (accessed and saved 3/24/19).

[959] Michael Barkun, A Culture of Conspiracy, University of California Press (Los Angeles, 2003), p. 7.

[960] YouGov-Cambridge Center / GB survey (August, 2018). Raw results at https://d25d2506sfb94s.cloudfront.net/cumulus_uploads/document/5j57dtwlc0/YGC%20Conspiracy%20Theories%20(GB).pdf . Textual and graphical summary in Esther Addley, “Study shows 60% of Britons believe in conspiracy theories”, Guardian (11/22/2018), https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/nov/23/study-shows-60-of-britons-believe-in-conspiracy-theories (accessed and saved 3/24/19).

[961] Uscinski, op. cit. locations 429 – 435.

[962] Ertugrul Apakan and Omur Budak, “Population Aging and Development:  Opportunities for Economic Growth”, statement delivered to Council on Foreign Relations (9/27/2012), https://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Apakan-Intro-and-Comments.pdf (accessed and saved 3/25/19).

[963] G. Gardner and B. Halweil, Underfed and Overfed: the global epidemic of malnutrition (Worldwatch paper no. 150), Worldwatch Institute (Washington, DC, 2000), as quoted by Benjamin Caballero, “The Global Epidemic of Obesity:  An Overview”, Epidemiologic Reviews vol. 29 (6/13/2007), 1-5 at 1. https://academic.oup.com/epirev/article/29/1/1/444345 (accessed and saved 6/21/13).

[964] Data from World Bank. Excellent summary and graphics by Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser, “Urbanization”, Our World in Data (Sep. 2018), https://ourworldindata.org/urbanization (accessed and saved 3/25/19).

[965] Isabelle Bilton, “Women are outnumbering men at a record high in universities worldwide”, SI News (3/07/2018), https://www.studyinternational.com/news/record-high-numbers-women-outnumbering-men-university-globally/ (accessed and saved 3/25/19).

[966] Joseph Chamie, “Out-of-Wedlock Births Rise Worldwide”, YaleGlobal Online (3/16/2017), https://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/out-wedlock-births-rise-worldwide (accessed and saved 3/25/19).

[967] Facebook, 1st quarter 2020 report, https://investor.fb.com/investor-news/press-release-details/2020/Facebook-Reports-First-Quarter-2020-Results/default.aspx (accessed, saved, and archived 5/31/20). The report counts 2.6 billion monthly active users on Facebook alone. This figure exceeds 3 billion when including other Facebook products such as Instagram.      

[968] Christianity was also projected to have 2.6 billion practitioners in 2020. See Todd M. Johnson et al., Status of Global Christianity, 2019, in the Context of 1900 – 2050, Center for the Study of Global Christianity (Jan., 2019), https://www.gordonconwell.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2019/04/StatusofGlobalChristianity20191.pdf  (accessed, saved, and archived 5/31/20). Facebook is growing 100 times more rapidly, having achieved this size in just two decades as compared to two millennia.

[969] Monty G. Marshall et al., “Polity IV Project:  Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800-2013”, Systemic Peace (6/06/2014), http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm (accessed 4/06/19). Data visualized by Max Roser, “Democracy”, Our World in Data (2019), https://ourworldindata.org/democracy (accessed and saved 4/06/19).

[970] In case you don’t recognize this famous quote, it is from Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651) Ch. 12.

[971] Not everyone agrees that life is, on balance, more peaceful now than ever before. One who does make the case is Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of our Nature:  Why Violence has Declined, Penguin Books (2011).

Back Matter Citations

[972] Hourglass and eyeglasses:  As in Front Matter.  Book:  Jimmiet and Gaeser, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Big_Book_blue.svg (accessed and archived 6/29/22).

[973]  World Population Review, “Dictatorship Countries”, http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/dictatorship-countries/ (updated regularly; accessed and archived 2/14/20).

[974] Henry Kissinger, World Order, Penguin Books (Kindle eBook edition, 2014), location 204.

[975] Photo © 2018 by Ashleigh Cahn, www.AshleighCahnPhotography.com .

[976] http://www.MeadenCreative.com/

[977] Hourglass image:  AlLes, Pixabay Commercial License, https://pixabay.com/illustrations/hourglass-sand-castle-sand-time-1412440/ (accessed and archived 7/10/22). Sitting woman image: Kuziva Shamu, Shutterstock license, https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/beautiful-stylish-woman-sitting-on-floor-1305146482 . Modern man image: Viorel Sima, Shutterstock license, https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/side-portrait-young-man-blue-shirt-386933875 . Monkey image: thirayut, Shutterstock license, https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/monkey-isolated-against-white-background-157988852 .  Caveman image: Nicolas Primola, Shutterstock license, https://www.shutterstock.com/image-illustration/digital-illustration-render-neanderthal-man-311207282 .  Standing woman image: Nenad Nedomacki, Shutterstock editorial license, https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/smederevo-serbia-may-02-2019-fortress-1391520614 . Composite images by Scot Fagerland and Andy Meaden.